Page Two HE information that comes from Russia is usually confusedmnd contra. dictory, and the most important is suppressed. On July an All Russian Congress of Soviets convened, was in session more than a week, but scarcely any news was allowed to come here of the sessions, except one or two unim portant items. This suppression of Russian news by the newspaper hirelings of imperialism is eloquent in itself. It proves conclusively that the Soviets are in undisputed control of Rus. that they are proceeding satisfactorily with the reconstruction, of the country, otherwise the papers would teem with news to the contrary; and the suppression of news concerning the recent All Russian Congress is very satisfactory as showing that the Bolshevi are still directing the destiny of. revolutionary Russia, otherwise the press would have screamed in big, black face type, ProGerman Bolsheviki Overthrown.
This is, indeed, the salient feature in the Russian situation: the undisputed supremacy of the Soviets. Counterrevolutionary plots, some of them engineered by the infamous traitors among the moderate Socialists, have been swiftly crushed and caused scarcely a ripple upon the surface of things. The eighth or tenth Provisional Siberian Government has been organized, and yet the Russian masses do not rally to its support. Nine months of the dictatorship of the proletariat and the peasantry has proven the will of the Russian masses, the supremacy of the Soviets. The Soviets will not be overthrown except at the point of foreign bayonets, by the combined invasion of Austro German and Japanese Entente troops. For it is certain that an invasion of Siberia by Japanese troops, miserably camouﬂaged as assisting Russia, would be the signal for a new German invasion of European Russia; and each imperialistic government would justify itself by the action of the other.
It would be a waste of time to characterize the infamous charges concerning the pro Germanism of the Bolsheviki. The acceptance of the brutal peace terms of Germany was an expression of realistic policy, a necessity imposed upon the Soviets by the disorganization of the economic life of the country and of the army a disorganization.
started under Czarism and completed by the various coalition governments.
Revolutionary Russia accepted this peace temporarily, to prepares its material and psychological forces to renew the struggle against German Imperialism against all Imperialism. Today, one of the tasks of the Council of People Commissaries is the organization of a new revolutionary army; as Trotzky phrased it in urging conscription, only an adequate army can save revolutionary Russia considering the prevailing international situation. Conscription was adopted by the Sov1ets; and soon revolutionary Russia will have its own army as an instrument of revolutionary proletarian policy. Should the Soviets retain power and not be overthrown by foreign intervention, and should peace, as is likely, not be concluded within a year or two, revolutionary Russia will re enter the war against Germany in order to enforce real self determination in the provinces brutally annexed by Germany and Austria. Provided with the means, revolutionary Russia will ﬁght; but it will be its own separate war, a revolutionary war waged for revolutionary purposes.
This war might conceivably contribute to the development of revolution in The New International, September October, 1918 By LOUIS FRAINA Germany, in which event Russia war against Germany would immediately cease, and the revolutionary proletariat of both nations unite to ﬁght all Imby prolonging the war. This circumstance has developed pro war sentiments among some American Socialists. But the problem is a much more fundap8 rialism and for the international mental one.
objectively, the war asWorkers Control of Industry in Russia On November 27, 1917, the Soviet government issued a decree establishing organs, for the workers control actories. The decree published below was supplemented, on December 18, 1917, by a decree establishing a Council of National Economy, constituted of representatives from the All Russian Workmen Council Control, lrorn each commissariat, from trades unions, etc. The Council of National Economy uniﬁes and directs the regulation of economic activity and state ﬁnances, and has the authority to conﬁscate, requisition, sequestrate and syndicate any industrial establishment. The Council of National Economy is divided into several sections; each of which deals with a separate phase of economy. All bills proposed by this council are submitted to the Council of People Commissairch (1) In order to put the economic life of the country on an orderly basis, control by the workers is instituted over all industrial, commercial, and agricultural undertakings and societies; and those connected with banking and transport, as well as over productive co operative societies which employ labor or put out work to be done at home or in connection with the production, purchase, and sale of commodities and of raw materials, and with conservation of such commodities as well as regards the ﬁnancial aspect of such undertakings. 2) Control is exercised by all the workers of a given enterprise through the medium of their elected organs, such as factories and works committees, councils of workmen delegates, etc. such organs equally comprising representatives of the employee and of the technical stall. 3) In each important industrial town, province, or district, is set up a local workmen council of control, which, being the organ of the soldiers, workmen and peasants council, will comprise the representatives of the labor unions, workmen committees, and of any other factories, as well as of workmen co operative societies. 4) Until such time as workmen councils of control hold a congress, the AllRussian Workmen Council of Control is to be set up in Petrograd, on which will sit representatives of the following organizations. Five delegates of the executive committee of the Council (Soviet) of Workmen and Scldiers delegates of Russia; ﬁve delegates of the of the Peasants Council of Russia; five delegates of the Labor Unions of Russia; two delegates of the Central Committee of the Workingmen Co operative Societies of Russia; ﬁve delegates of the Factory and Works Committee of Russia; five delegates of theEngineers and Technical Agents Union of Russia; two delegates of the Agrarian Union of Russia; one delegate from each Workmen Union in Russia having not less than 100, 000 members, two delegates from any union having a membership of over 100, 000, two delegates from the of the Labor Unions. 5) Side by side with the Workmen Suprem Council of Control are set up committees of inspection comprising technical specialists, accountants, etc. These committees, both on their own initiative or at the request of local wotkmen organs of control, proceed to a given locality to study the ﬁnancial and technical side of any enterprise. 6) The Worknicn Organs of Control have the right to supcrulse production, to ix a minimum wage in any undertaking, and to take steps to ﬁx the prices at which manufactured articles are to be sold. 7) The Workmen Organs of Control have the right to control all correspondence passing in connection with the business of an undertaking being held responpible before a court of justice for diverting their correspondence. Commercial secrets are abolished.
The owners are called upon to produce to the Workmen Organs of Control all books and moneys in hand, both relating to the current year and to any previous transactions. 8) The decisions the Workmen Organs of Control are binding upon the owners of undertakings, and can not be nulliﬁed save by the decision of a Workmen Superior!
Organ of Control. 9) Three days are given to the owners, or the administrators of a business, to appeal to a Workmen Superior Court of Control against the decisions ﬁled by any of the lower organs of Workmen Control. 10) In all undertakings, the owners and the representatives of workmen and of employes delegated to exercise control on behalf of the workmen, are responsible to the Government for the maintenance of strict order and discipline, and for the conservation of property (goods. Those guilty of misappropriating materials and products, of not keeping books properly, and of similar offences, are liable to prosecution. 11) Workmen District Councils of Control settle all disputes and conﬂicts between the lower Organs of Control, as well as all complaints made by the owners of undertakings, taking into consideration any peculiar conditions under which production is carried on, and local conditions. They will issue instructions within the limits prescribed by the All Russian Workmen Council of Control and supervise the activities of the lower organs of control. 12) The All Russian Workmcn Council of Control shall work out a general plan for control to be exercised by the workmen, and to issue instructions and regulations, and to systematize the reports of the various Workmen Councils of Control; and constitute the supreme authority for dealing with all matters connected with the control exercised by workmen. 13) The All Russian Workmen Council of Conrol coordinates the activities of the Workmen Organs of Control and of those institutions which direct the organization of the economic life of the country. regulation concerning the relations. between the All Russian Workmen Council of Control and the other institutions which organize and put in order the economic life of the country will be issued later. 14) All laws and circulars which impede the proper working the factory, works, and other committees, and that o workmen and employes councils, are abrogated.
cialism recognizes one struggle alone the class struggle; and revolutionary Socialism wages the class struggle under any and all conditions, even should it become a test of military power in the form of a revolutionary war.
The longer the war lasts, the more intense becomes the struggle, the better the prospects of the Russian Revolution, since neither group of imperialistic belligerents can do all that they otherwise would do to crush the Revolution. It is in the interest of international Imperialism to crush the proletarian Revolution in Russia, and it is in spite of itself that lmperialism assists the Revolution sists the Revolution by giving it a respite; but this respite is naturally only temporary, since once the war ends international Imperialism will unite to crush the proletarian revolution; subjectively, the only force that can assist the proletarian revolution in Russia is the class consciousness and action of the proletariat in all belligerent nations.
It is the supreme task of the Socialist to develop this class consciousness and action. The prevailing international situation emphasizes the necessity of adhering to our fundamental principles of revolutionary Socialism the uncompromising policy of the class struggle.
In Russia itself, the Soviets are de« The Situation in Russia stroying the political power of the capitalist class and taking resolute steps toward the gradual introduction of Socialism. Socialism is not as yet estab lished, Russia now being in the transition period from Capitalism to Socialism, a period characterized by the dietatorship of the proletariat as projected by the genius of Marx.
The old state, equally the bourgeois parliamentary state and the Czarist state, has been completely overthrown, with all its machinery of repression, its bureaucracy, and its antiproletarian character.
recognizes only the workers and the peasants as its constituents; as the old state was an instrument for the coercion of the proletariat by the bourgeoisie, so the new state is an instrument for the coercion of the bourgeoisie by the proletariat with this difference: that where the old state considered itself as sacrosanct and eternal, the new state considers itself a temporary necessity that will gradually become superﬂuous in the measure that the process of reconstruction emerges deﬁnitely into the Socialist communist society of the organized producers.
As an historical category, the Soviets are not a peculiar Russian product, but class organizations characteristic of the proletarian revolution. They constitute a dictatorship in relation to the bourgeoisie, but a democracy in relation to the workers and peasants the real democracy of Socialism.
The representatives to the Soviets are elected directly by the workers and peasants, on the basis of male and female suffrage. The Soviet is the local organ of authority, supervising the industrial and social activity of the people. The division of functions into legislative and executive, characteristic of the parliamentary system and a means of thwarting the will of the people, is abolished: legislative and executive functions are combined into one body, the people itself acts as in the Paris Commune. The local Soviets elect delegates to an All Russian Congress of Soviets, which meets every three months. in Moscow, and constitutes the supreme authority in Russia. This Congress elects the members of the Council of People Commisaires and a Central Executive Committee which sits permanently during the period intervening between sessions of the All Russian Soviet Congress and renders full reports, and if satisfacory they are continued in power; if not, they are dismissed. ElecJ tion of delegates to the All Russian Congress and to the Central Executive Committee are on the basis of proportional representation: and this fact is eloquent of the infamy of the moderate Socialists who intrigue and plot against the Soviet government, since they have equal rights with the Bolsheviki to acquire control; and if they are in a pitiful minority, it is because the revolutionary masses reject their policy.
The peasantry has, at least for the, present, accepted the tutelage of the revolutionary: proletariat, the SocialRevolutionary party having split into two factions, the great majority, the The new state Social Revolutionists of the left, accept. ing the program of the Bolsheviki.
Private ownership of land has been abolished, the land being nationalized and distributed to the peasants with provision for periodical re distribution.
Local land committees take charge of production and distribution, inventory the land in a particular district, allot land to the villages, regulate agricultural, labor, control forests, etc. and receive the rental for the use of the land, which is turned over to the national govern