Page Eight The New International. February. l9l8 The International Movement The Bolsheviki DURING the early part of November.
shortly after the overthrow of the Kerensky provisional government. the Bolsheviki government introduced the following measures, according to reports from Holland: All local governments are authorized to confiscate all the occupied or unoccupied houses in order to provide for those living in over crowded districts.
All factories belong to the workers. moratorium declared on the rent of small tenements.
Confiscation of all land in favor of the the peasants. without compensation; all large properties, church and state domains together with all buildings, tools, live stock, etc. are put at the disposal of local committees.
Confiscation of coal fields, oil and salt mines, forests and canals, partly in the hands of the central government. partly to be organized by local authorities.
Nikolai Lenine, in an article in the Jugend Internationale. warns against the demand of some Left Wing Socialists for opposition to all wars and for advocacy of general disarmament. Not only, says Lenine, are Socialists in favor of waging the class war even when it leads to civil war, but we have to accept revolutionary wars under certain conditions, to defend the proletarian revolution in one or more countries against reactionary attacks.
And even national wars may have our support when waged by peoples that are the objective of Imperialism. What we oppose is any form of imperialistic war. no matter under what national pretext it is prosecuted. Civil and revolutionary wars being a necessity, Lenine considers general disarmament not a revolutionary demand. The proletariat will have to tall: tun weapons of war into its own hands for the overthrow of Capitalism.
Russian Troops in France THE news has now been passed by the censor that a whole regiment of Russian troops was in open revolt in France from June to September and no report of this remarkable fact was allowed to reach the United States during that period.
More than l0. 000 Russian soldiers refused to fight after the revolution was declared. General Tankevitch and all the officers had to leave camp. The provisional government of Kerensky denounced the troops and ordered the soldiers disarmed, if necessary by the use of armed force, whereupon only 2, 500 submitted, the others refusing to obey. Reduction of rations and allowances did not have any result, since the Russians had already provided for a large reserve of food. French officer and non commissioned officers were kept under arrest for several hours.
An ultimatum under threat of bombardment had no effect, and actual artillery fire resulted only in a few more men submitting. On September 4, after thirty shells had been dropped into the camp, 8, 300 gave in, but I40 rebels still remained and answered with a violent machine gun fire. It was only on September that the remaining force of the mutineers was overpowered by loyal French and Russian troops.
German Socialism THE national convention of German majority party, held in Wurzburg on October l4. rejected a resolution to vote no on war credits in the future, 250 votes against, 26 in favor, and 7B voting. present. The idea of a referendum vention decided in favor of re uniting the party, on the basis of course of a surrender of the Independents. In the debate on this resolution the Independent Social Democratic Party were called Anarchists and traitors, but at the same time it was admitted that the majority party was losing the support of the masses. At this convention, Philip Scheidemann made a speech which completely abandoned the principles of Socialism. urging a unity with the capitalist state and working within its limits. Commenting on this speech, the social patriotic Berlin onvacrts says: The most interesting point in Scheidemann speech was the statement that the socialization of society cannot be brought about through the exclusive efforts of the Social Democracy. This means bourgeois refonnism.
the co operation of classes, social Imperialism and reaction. The Independent Socialists have rejected unity with the majority. party Propaganda and Riots in Germany COMRADE Bertha Thallheimer, of Stuttgart. a member of the group Internationale and a delegate to the Zimmerwalder Conference at Kienthal. has been sentenced to two years imprisonment for the distribution of revolutionary leaflets.
At least a few reports about demonstrations and riots in Germany reach us. isolated expression of seething and even revo lutionary discontent. Some news items tell of a number of killed and wounded.
And the censor certainly will not allow all the truth to come through. The eyes of the workers of the world are centered on Germany; but this should be no excuse for our own inactivity. On with the propaganda of Revolutionary Socialism!
The editor of the Left Wing paper, Kompf. published in Holland in the German language, Comrade Minster. has been arrested near the border by German spies.
and has disappeared. Minster was at the Holland German frontier in connection with revolutionary propaganda in Germany. and probably has been made a victim. No news of his fate is available.
Italy THE Socialist Party of Italy, which has taken an intrepid stand against the war, has issued a call through its Executive Committee to maintain unflinchingly the anti war stand, notwithstanding the fact that foreign troops are on Italian soil. The social patriots, Turati and Treve, made an appeal for patriotic support and defense of the fatherland, whereas the Socialist group in Parliament defi nitely rejected an offer to participate in a bourgeois ministry, declaring that its policy was fundamentally different from that of the social patriots. The Socialist Party is by no means swept off its feet by the frantic appeals and denunciations of the bougeoisie, and the government has recourse to force. The offices of Avanli.
the radical organ of the party in Rome.
were raided and several arrests made, presumably on the charge of pro German activity. Socialist Congress that was to have been held November was prohibited. Revolutionary Socialism in Italy carries on what the bourgeois call a Hole featist campaign; it is striving with might and main to make a Social Revo lution as did the proletariat of Russia.
Of all the belligerent countries, Italy comes nearest to Russian conditions, and it may well become an ally soon of revolutionary Russia. to decide the status of Alsace Lorraine vahe revolutionary activity of the Italwas rejected by a vote of 262 against 14. With one dissenting vote the conian Socialists is being maintained, including in Parliament. Recently Comrade Morgari spoke for three hours in spite of violent protests from the bourgeois parties.
demanding immediate peace on the Bolshevik terms and methods. Morgari openly declared his solidarity with the Russian revolutionary Maximalists.
France and England ACCORDING to The Labour Leader.
Philip Snowden declared in Parliament that France was in danger of a revolution. That was some time ago; conditions have since developed much more acutely. According to the statement. the soldiers had practical control of the army and were refusing to obey orders. The French soldiers were saying what the Russians had already said: We will not go into the trenches for a war of imperialistic aims and aggression.
Our English comrades continue their acn vity against the war. Two women were arrested near Manchester for dis tributing leaflets of the imprisoned conscientious objectors. Of these conscientious objectors against war, 596 are already serving a second term of imprisonment. 157 a third.
food stuffs at prices not higher than before the war; taxes only on war profits, capital and large incomes. The soldiers are invited to contribute to a special column from and for soldiers, giving their own thoughts and complaints.
The Social Democratic Labor Party.
which publishes the papers named above.
has been officially invited by the Bolshevrkr to undertake telegraphic correspondence with Petrograd regarding peace movements among the proletariat in Europe and America. This ignoring of the major: ity party in Holland by the Bolskevilu is a rebuke to moderate Socialism everyWhatePortugal THE president and prime minister of Portugal have been put in jail as the result of a revolutionary upheaval. Paris papers report a resemblance of this revolt to the first acts of the Workers and Solldiers Delegates in Russia. The rebel leader. Machado Santos. has been in r; prison since December, but on December l was reported in control of the situation.
i; The overthrown government was strongly in favor of continuing the war together with the Allies. r Austria THE party convention of German 50cialists in Austria, on October 25, adopted a resolution winding up with an appeal to the government to continue its efforts for a peace without annexations and indemnities, and including international disarmament and international arbitration. The resolution, read by old Vietor Adler, claims that the Austrian Socialists supported the Russian peace for mula by endorsing the Stockholm conference. The arguments in every respect are a support of German and Austrian diplomacy, and a betrayal of the Russian comrades. The Social Revolution will have to sweep into oblivion this kind of Socialists together with all other reactionaries. n.
SWISsConscrentious Objectors CONSCIENTIOUS objectors in Switzer land who preferred to go to jail rather than bear arms numbered three hundred in one year alone. Two hundred and fifty of these belonged to Young People Socialist organizations, among whom is the chairman of the branch at Gallen, Comrade Ernest Diggelmann. He stated among other arguments: Socialism has taught us not to look for the enemies of the people where our Swiss patriotic misleaders want us to see them: these enemies are rather in our own country, here with us in the factories, banks, in the government bureaus and military camps. Militarism is the greatest enemy of the proletariat, because it is the instrument with which the most modern robbers, our Swiss capitalists, manage to keep their slaves in suppression. We Swiss Young People are Conscientious Objectors because we hope to undermine the present rule of capital by a refusal of military service on a large scale. Diggelmann was sentenced to six months in prison.
Holland OUR sister organ in Holland, the Left Wing Daily Tribune, has been issuing since November, l9 7, a bi weekly paper.
the Soldiers Tribune, for the special purpose of propaganda among soldiers. Its program advocates: immediate and general de mobilization of the army; the constitution of Councils of Soldiers; payment of a full wage to mobilized and unem ployed workers; embargo on food stuffs; confiscation and proper distribution of Uprising in Spain SINCE the defeat of the revolutionary uprisings in Spain in July, the workers are gradually recovering. Reports from Barcelona indicate that demands have been made to liberate those imprisoned in connection with the previous uprisings.
The situation is again considered serious by the ruling class, and promising by the proletariat.
The Railroads and the Government The New Yer Evening Call is jubi lant over the government control of rail roads. It sees in such control a step in the direction of Socialism. Wall Street is also jubilant, but for an entirely different and more accurate reason. It sees in government control, with its guarantees of profits, its domination of labor, its opr portunities for complete railroad systemization and aid in militarism and imperial ism. a more assured, expansive, intensive and remunerative capitalism. When railroad stocks go up in Wall Street it time for Socialist error to go down in ruin. Formerly. when Wall Street rejoiced Socialism despaired. Such a manifesta tion indicated the further entrenchment of the capitalist class to the greater detri ment of the working class. Times have not changed in their essence, and there is no valid reason why Socialists should refuse to diagnose them according to the symptoms peculiar to them, as formerly.
Fallacious, indeed, is the Socialist who sees in government control any other than the complete combination of railroad interests under governmental auspices, in defiance of all anti trustism and labor unionism. and for the advancement of imperialist policy at home and abroad. It is the dream of Harriman of a single railroad system with its immense savings and earnings come true; with the needs of imperialism to give it still greater importance. It follows, consequently, that, if Socialism comes at all from such governmental control, it will come, not through it directly, but as a result of it indirectly.
For such government control implies the introduction of far reaching changes peculiar to the elimination of competition such as we have witnessed heretofore, in fact. in the trustification of industry; government control being merely another form of trustification. with the difference of government aid instead of opposition and with a view of international capitalism instead of only national capitalism.