21y I919 organize the whole working class into industrial unions; the concept of organizing the working class industrially before the conquest of power is as utopian as the moderate socialist conception of the gradual conquest of the parliamentary state.
The proletarian revolution comes at the moment of crisis in Capitalism, of a collapse of the old order. Under the impulse of the. crisis, the proletariat acts for the conquest of power, by means of mass action. Mass action concentrates and mobilizes the forces of the proletariat, organized and unorganized; it acts equally against the bourgeois state and the conservative organizations of the working class.
protest, developing into mass political strikes and then into revolutionary mass action for the conquest of the power of the state. Mass action becomes political in purpose while extraparliamentary in form; it is equally a process of revolution and the revolution itself in operation.
The ﬁnal objective of mass action «is the conquest of the power of the state, the annihilation of the bourgeois parliamentary state and the introduction of the transition proletarian state, functioning as a revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat.
DICTATORSHIP or THE PROLETARIAT The attitude toward the state divides the Anarchist (and Anarcho Syndicalist. the moderate Socialist and the revolutionary Socia list. Eager to abolish the state (which is the ultimate purpose of revolutionary Socialism. the Anarchist (and Anarcho Syndicalist) fails to realize that the state is necessary in the transition period from Capitalism to Socialism.
The moderate Socialist proposes to use the bourgeois state, with its fraudulent democracy, its illusory theory of the unity of all the classes, its standing army, police and bureaucracy oppressing and bafﬂing the masses. The revolutionary Socialist maintains that the bourgeois parliamentary state must be completely destroyed, and proposes the organization of a new state, the dictatorship of the proletariat. The state is an organ of coercion. The bourgeois parliamentary state is the. organ of the bourgeoisie for the coercion of the proletariat. The revolutionary proletariat must, accordingly, destroy this state. But the conquest of political power by the proletariat does not immediately end Capitalism, or the power of the capitalists, or immediately socialize industry. It is therefore necessary that the proletariat organize its own state for the coercion and suppression of the bourgeoisie.
Capitalism is bourgeois dictatorship. Parliamentary government is the expression of bourgeois sup remacy. the form of authority of the capitalist over the worker. The bourgeois state is organized to coerce the proletariat, to bafﬂe the will of the masses. In form a democracy, the bourgeois parliamentary state is in fact an autocracy, the dictatorship of capital over the proletariat.
Bourgeois democracy promotes this dictator ship of capital, assisted by the pulpit, the army and the police. Bourgeois democracy seeks to reconcile all the classes; realizing, however.
simply the reconciliation of the proletariat to the supremacy of Capitalism. Bourgeois democracy is political in character, historically necessary, on the one hand, to break the power of feudalism, and, on the other. to maintain the proletariat in subjection. It is precisely this democracy that is now the instrument of Imperialism. since the middle class, the tradi tional carrier of democracy, accepts and promotes Imperialism.
The proletarian revolution disrupts bourgeois democracy. It disrupts this democracy in order to end class divisions and class rule, The revolution starts with strikes of, Tm: REVOLUTIONARY A61: to realize that industrial self government of the workers which alone can assure peace and liberty to the peoples.
Proletarian dictatorship is a recognition of the necessity for a revolutionary state to coerce and suppress the bourgeoisie: it is equally a recognition of the fact that, in the Communist reconstruction of society, the proletariat as a class alone counts. The new society organizes as a communistic federation of producers. The proletariat alone counts in the revolution, and in the reconstruction of society on a Communist basis. The old machinery of the state cannot be used by the revolutionary proletariat. It must be destroyed. The proletariat creates a new state, based directly upon the industrially organized producers, upon the industrial unions or Soviets, or a combination of both.
It is this state alone, functioning as a dictatorship of the proletariat, that can realize Socialism.
The tasks of the. dictatorship of the proletariat are: a) to completely expropriate the bourgeoisie poitically, and crush its powers of resistance.
h) to expropriatc the bourgeoisie economically, and introduce the forms of Communist Socialism.
Breaking the political power of the capitalists is the most important task of the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat, since upon this depends the economic and social reconstruction of society.
But this political expropriation proceeds simultaneously with an immediate, if partial, expropriation of the bourgeoisie economically.
the scope of these measures being determined by industrial development and the maturity of the proletariat. These measures, at ﬁrst, include; a) Workmen control of industry, to be exercised by the industrial organizations of the workers, operating by means of the in dustrial vote.
b) Expropriation and nationalization of the banks, as a necessary preliminary measure for the complete expropriation of capital.
c) Expropriation and nationalization of the large (trust) organizations of capital. Ex propriation proceeds without compensation, as. buying out the capitalists is a repudiation of the tasks of the revolution.
d) Repudiation of all national debts and the ﬁnancial obligations of the old system.
e) The nationalization of foreign trade.
f) Measures for the socialization of agriculture.
These measures centralize the basic means of production in the proletarian state, nationalizing industry; and their partial character ceases as reconstruction proceeds. Socialization of industry becomes actual and complete only after the dictatorship of the proletariat has accomplished its task of suppressing the bourgeoisie.
The state of proletarian dictatorship is political in character, since it represents a rul in;r class, the proletariat, which is now su preme; and it uses coercion against the old bourgeois class. But the task of this dictator ship is to render itself unnecessary; and it becomes unnecessary the moment the full conditions of Communist Socialism materialize.
While the dictatorship of the proletariat perform its negative task of crushing the old order, it performs the positive task of con structing the new. Together with the government of the proletarian dictatorship, there is developed a new government, which is no longer government in the old sense, since it concerns itself with the management of production and not with the government of persons. Out of workers control of industry, inIS troduced by the proletarian; dictatorship, there develops the complete structure of Communist Socialism, industrial self government of the communistically organized producers. When this structure is completed, which implies the complete expropriation of the bourgeoisie economically and politically, the dictatorship of the proletariat ends, in its place coming the full and free social and individual automony of the Communist order.
THE COMMUNIST INTERNATIONAL.
The Communist International, issuing directly out of the proletarian revolution in action and in process of development, is the organ of the international revolutionary proletariat: just as the League of Nations is the organ of the joint aggression and resistance of the dominant Imperialism.
The attempt to resurrect the Second International, at Berne, was a ghastly failure. It rallied the counter revolutionary forces of Europe, which were actually struggling against the proletarian revolution. In this International are united all the elements treasonable to Socialism, and the wavering centre elements whose policy of miserable compromise is more dangerous than open treason. It represents the old dominant moderate Socialism; it based afﬁliation on acceptance of labor parliamentary action, admitting trades unions accepting political action. The old International abandbned the earlier conception of Socialism as the politics of the Social Revolution the politics of the class struggle in its revolutionary implications admitting directly reactionary organizations of Laborism, such as the British Labor Party.
The Communist International, on the contrary, represents a Socialism in complete accord with the revolutionary character of the class struggle. It unites all the consciously revolutionary forces. It wages war equally against the dominant moderate Socialism and Imperialism each of which has demonstrated its complete incompetence on the problems that now press down upon the world. The Communist International issues its challenge to the conscious, virile elements of the proletariat, calling them to the ﬁnal struggle against Capitalism on the basis of the revolutionary epoch of Imperialism. The acceptance of the Corn munist International means accepting the fun damentals of revolutionary! Socialism as decysrve in our activity.
The Communist International, moreover, issues its call to the subject peoples of the world, crushed under the murderous mastery of Imperialism. The revolt of these colonial and subject peoples is a necessary phase of the world struggle against capitalist Imperialism; their re trltniust unite itself will the struggle of the conscious proletariat in the imperialistic nations. The communist International, accordingly, offers an organization and a policy that may unify all the revolutionary forces of the world for the conquest. of power, and for Socialism.
It is not a problem of immediate revolution. is a problem of the immediate revolutionary struggle. The revolutionary epoch of the ﬁnal struggle against Capitalism may last for years and tens of years; but the Communist International oﬁers a policy and program immediate and utlimate in scope, that provides for the immediate class struggle against Capitalism, in its revolutionary implications, and for the ﬁnal act of the conquest of poWer.
The old order is in decay. Civilization is in collapse. The proletarian revolution and the Communist reconstruction of society the struggle for these is now indispensable. This is the message of the Communist International to the workers of the world.
The Communist International calls the pro letariat of the world to the final struggle.