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Saturday, May 31, 1919 THE REVOLUTIONARY AGE The Left Wing Manifesto and Program class je war: Hungary datory; erent of all peace for the successias wstruggle in favor of class France of con Smileveloped into would prove communist Reto supremacy: By Louis Fraina are a form of expressions of the class struggle. The Sucialism and the War revolutionary wars waged by France against feudal THE Manifesto and Program of the Left Wing war of national defense. In one nation alone was Europe were a national form of the class struggle Section of the Socialist Party of New York City, this true, and that was Serbia. but there the Socialists waged between the capitalist class and the feudal class.
which has been adopted by local after local of opposed the war, recognizing that, with the intervenThe national wars of liberation were revolutionary e Socialist Party, opens with an indictment of the tion of the great powers, the war ceased to be a nationlicy and practice of the dominant Socialism during al war of Serbia and became a brutal imperialistic struggles. Instead of being suspended during war, the class struggle acquires new potency and signworld war. The German Socialists, least of all, had ificance.
The Social Democracies of Europe, unable or unthe e right to speak of a national war, since Austriawilling to meet the crisis of the war. were theinWar is the continuation of peace; the policy of a selves hurled into the conflagration, to be tempered or immediate purpose was the annihilation government during war is determined by its policy unsumed by it.
Great demonstrations were held in every European Thec bia summatio uale di ole per edhe theoreticians of moder cialism during peace indicted the imperialistic policy country by Socialists protesting against their governments declarations of war, and the mobilization for ate Socialism yas that Socialism and Marxism acceped of the governments, but during the war they ascribed war. And we know that these demonstrations were rendered impotent by the complete surrender of the but the question was not whether Socialism accepts goveruments. Apparently, according to model de SoSocialist parliamentary leaders and the official Social wars of national defense, but whether an imperialistic cialism, all that a bourgeois governme: veil: to do ist press, with their justifications of defensive wars a avar of national defense. mperialism preand the safeguarding of democracy.
to become acceptable to Socialism is io sirvlarc war!
Why the sudden change of front? Why did the Soit annihilates national independense in its The holy water of the Church was never a potent as cialist leaders in the parliament of the belligerents vote struggle for territorial and financial domination. The this.
the war credits? Why did not moderate Socialism whole course of the war, the violation by each bellig The theoretical implications of this acceptare and carry out tie policy of the Basle Manifesto, namely: national rights. and now the character justification of the war means a break wit indathe converting of an imperialistic war into a civil warinto a proletarian revolution? Why did it either of the peace. prove conclusively the predatory, im mentals of Socialism. The class struggle u ndaopenly favor the war or adopt policy of petty bourmental to Socialism: but moderate Socialism insisteil geois pacifism These theoreticians of moderate Socialism, more that national struggles were equally fundamentala The dominant moderate Socialisin in Europe, that Socialism which was the heart and soul of the old In tional independence an argument in their favor not that national struggles in oựr days are an expression ternational, accepted the war and entered the service Germany, Marx words the necessity of of it was logical to conclude that the 10 war against Russia were Socialism depends upon Imperialism! This war, abondoned the class rezolutionary completed the of the of moderate Socialism in ordinary Curonto social Imperialismi.
the downfall, the independence in the epoch of the reve of wars of liberation, of wars waged for national Socialism developing from comery. In this is aging of the war to nation national. But Marx was speaking deof the Second International.
emocracy of Capitalism, completing The consequences were disastrous. Instead of using representatives of moderate Socialism have feudalism. At the time Marx urged war against Rusthe war to weaken Capitalism and develop the revo adopted the policy of denying that there was any col sia, Czarism was the centre of reaction in Europe. and tionary struggle, moderate Socialism used the war to lapse of the International. They claim that Socialism what Russia, of which bourgeois society might have ilize the proletariat in the service of Juniperialism and Marx urged was a revolutionary democratic war strengthen Capitalism and the bourgeois state: to mobin Europe did try to prevent war; that it did urge the against Socialism, to been capable at that time.
ed terms. but that Socialism was not strong enough ism, to prezent a proletarian revolution.
But since the days of Marx, the position of being The suspension of the class struggle chained to prevent the war. This is sheer sophistry. The of iron to the war and the bourquestion is not prevention of the war, but accepting Imperial Germany and by the Allies. In other words. geois state. Capitalism did not suspend the class strug It is indisputable that the dominant Socialism in Lurope divided along national lines, abandoning the represented dominantly by Germany, Cireat Britain and ariat, Russia, the centre of reaction had become Imperialisın. break up the revolutionary movement of the proleclass struggle. The majority Socialists of each belligNational defense had become simply a The hilisents consciously used moderate Socialism to erent group except the Socialist of Italy and Serbia screen behind which to hide sinister of moderate Socialpurposes (lenounced each other, declared to the proletariat that quest, of Imperialism. Capitalism, at the stage of Im ism war, while the evolutionary agents.
the waging of an democracy annibil war signalized the end of an epoch in CapitalSocialism. that war was necessary to perialism, is in reaction against victoralistic proletarianation of democracy is necessary for its purposes and ism. It marked the comi interests. Socialism, the coming of head of the violent auto To imagine of Imperialism capable public, was made dependent had repeatedralism war of national defense and ag antagonisms of intern Imperialism, it war dominant ing a reproducing a which the whole bourgeois society was thrown in the Socialism emphat ation of Garibaldi, is crucible of confuse two totically denounced the. change. Capitalism, verging on collapse, ofy war of liberation which Socialism and revolutionary war of national solve problems of Imperialism.
the proletariat should act.
of moderate Socialism, insisted ile clash of international Imperialism was bound to ism, equally again and again that the oppressed colonial peoples clominated by Imperial pression of the capitalist class struggle against the prothe Imperialism of Germany, Great Brit Ictariat, since the stake was world pwer, and world ain and France cor from a reveinternational compito victory, morcover, meant strengthening national Cape letariat to act against the war as reactionary, imperial ism.
accordingly, it was the task of Socialism and the pro hy a Socialist Republic against and counter revolutionary.
The arguments of national defense and lemo class power of the proletariat. The war provided an At the time of the first Balkan war, when Europe cracy. accordingly, were sheer sophistry on the part opportunity for «developing the revolutionary proletawas threatened with a conflagaration, there was held at Basel, Switzerland 911 emergency Inter perialism and consequently the wars of Tumperialism of the theoreticians of moderate Socialism.
Im rian struggle against Capitalism.
The Basel Manifesto had guaged the situation accurnational Socialist Congress, convened to act on the is against national independence and democracy: ately: the war would produce an cconomic and political impending war. This congress, in its Manifesto, de Moreover, the heart and soul of Socialism in action crisis which Socialism should use to lasten the end nource the general war that might come as a war is the class struggle. To yield up the class struggle of capitalism: or, as the Bolsheviki expressed it in injust: iahle on any ground of national interests, as the proletariat against Capitalism is to yield up So November. 1914 to convert the imperialistic war into img erialistic war: and emphasized that Socialism cialism. civil war of the oppressed against the oppressors, should use the political and cconomic crisis the This precisely what majority Socialism «lich in Eur and for Socialism. The moderates resorted to lying develop the revolutionary struggle against the abiarato baromed the class struggle in favor of the na in order to evacie tlıe implications of the Basel ManiCapitalism. The Basel Manifesto clearly imposed cependence of the proletariat, of the integrity of Sostruggle. This meant a surrender of the in festo: they declared that the Manifesto immediate revolution upon the declaration pf war: Socialism. only the necessity of opposing the cialism.
that there was no revolution, on the contrary, the war, but the necessity of using the war to weaken The class struggle is fundamental. It is the dynamic Capitalism and the state. to develop the revolutionary masses abandoned Socialism: accorclingly, they hadfactor upon which depends the coming of Socialism.
war! This was base diststringgle of the proletariat It is the force that determines crents, and the destiny ortion. The Basel Vanifesto did not expect an immen The war that majority Socialism in Lurope stigmat of peoples. from the class struggle. Sci linte revolution. an economic and an ideal aspiration, a disemsame war, produced by the same clash of Imperialism bodied spirit: abuse the class stralism. The the masses who abandoned Socialism as much as it the pro the revolutionary struggle against. apitalism: it wasn that might have precipitated war in 1912. or earlier Irtariat becomes the helpless prey of m reversed itself: instead of stigmatizing tlie war aş cialism: it is the final test of Socialism at the time of the Agadir crisis. But majority Sorial class strugele puts a hone in the aspirations of sowas the dominant moderate Socialism abandoned the in action, the hasses. rlelivered the masses as camon fodder to the imperialistie. it accepted the war as a war of national only means for the coming of Socialism.
defense. justifical as a war for democracy.
This class splits society, generating implac test of events exposed the sophistry of the The war originated in the same general causes that able class antagonisms. The clash of these antagon moderates. When the Revolution did come the moulproduces the onward march of historical events. crates, who had previously Isased their policy on the rean powers. These causes consisted in the struggle determines the policy of the capitalist class which is refusal of the masses to make a revolution, now opfor develored territory, the industrial clevelopment always conscious of class, and of the proletariat, which posed the Revolution. They depended upon the naof which might absorb the surplus capital which the is not alwars conscious of its class poliev. The comtional struggle: they depended upon Imperialism and developed nations had at their disposal. It was iner of Socialism depends upon the contest of war the bourgeois state: the necessary consecuence of their struggle over Morocco, over Mesopotamia, over the by the proletarint through the class strngule. End the policy was to act against the proletarian revolution. agdad Railwar, which had produced numerous clip class struggle. aml you end the proletarian struggle to The Second International broke down under the natic crises, and which finally Aared up into war. Crvel Canitalism.
test of the war. It broke down under the test of the The facts are conclusive. Socialist theory and Social This class strugele operates during peach This is proletarian revolution. Where it did not accept the ist investigation amply clenionstrated the imperialistic :rmitted by the theoreticians of moderate Socialism. war, its major elements opposed the war on the basis character of the war.
Put during the war the developed a new theory: the of petty bourgeois pacifism the whole poliev was a The dominant moderate Socialism, however, revers class struggle prevails during neace. but is suspended petty bourgeois policy. The petty bourgeois policy is ing its previous indictment of the war, discarding all during war, being merged in the national struggle. dependent upon any and everything for the coming of their concepts of Imperialism, justified the war as a Let us see. History shows that national struggles Socialism except the class struggle and the revolution.
upon liber The is to imperialiscoming sa they diferite and literations entre el the world into disaster. lishe ver los comentar of ated by war to expected upon 110t to accept the The isms highly a