THE REVOLUTIONARY AGE 6161 LI Ktpmts The Czar Hirelings are Active pr obviously inspired reports concerning the general tendency of Allied policy in Russia and on the Russian problem. If previously the politicians of the Allies adopted a cautious policy toward 1he Kolchak Government, if they disguised with the fig leaf of neutrality their actual support of this government. now. with commendable frankness, the. llies are showing their cards. The newspapers report that the (iovernment at Washington, together with the governments of the Allies, are ready to recognize the government of Kolcliak, that henchman of. ism. in the opinion of the, gentlemen who loiter in the corridors of the Peace Conference in Paris. the best elements in Russia are represented by the olcliacks and the Semenovs. The salvation of Russia. aparently, depends upon these pitiful remnants of the Czar regime.
Well. it is no secret to us that the Allies have been supporting the Russian monarchists with their gold.
This was confessed the other day by Lloyd George, that hireling of British Imperialism. And if now they ﬁnally decide openly to conclude a bloody contract with the men of the old Czarist regime this will frighten neither the Soviet Government nor its adherents in all countries. who have been rapidly iiiTliliRE have recently appeared in the capitalist By Nyemanov creasing. In the last analysis, this openly counterrevolutionary policy of the Allies must prove more advantageous to the Soviet than the old hide andseek game.
But, then, let not the Allies say they wish to deal with a democratic Russia; let them not cling, with fastidious frandulence, to the slogan, All power to the Constituent Assemblyz let them admit openly that their policy is the same as that of the Czarist generals. who march directly toward a monarchist restoration.
The Russian people will defend Soviet Russia to the end. They have proven their capacity to ﬁght, equally against the enemy within and the enemy without.
Doubtless, the present «policy of the Allies has been shaped, in a not small degiee, by the Russian travelling salesmen now in Paris. For some months now a coterie of the Czar diplomats and politicians have been active in Paris, the Sazonoffs and the Hirshes.
the Bakhmetievs and the Maklakovs. The nests of the Allied vultures have been open to them those vultures who are now deciding the world fate. crow will not pluck the eyes of another crow, but they unite. The Pichons and the Lloyd Georges are apparently acting at the instignation of this bourgeois Czarist cotcrie.
It will not surprise us, accordingly, if it should be discovered that all this agitation for the recognition of the Kolchaks and the Dcnikines is fabricated in the laboratory of Sazonov 8: Co. and that all the re ports concerning the defeats of the Soviet troops.
all the malicious and slanderous inventions appearing in the American and Allied press, are equally fabricated by Sazonov Co.
It has been clear for some tihie that the extrmie reactionary forces would make another desperate ttcmpt to restore their former power. It seems a if the moment for that has now come.
Soviet Russia wants peace. The responsible representatives of the Soviet policy have declared that again and again. But should the Allies unite with the Russian counter»revolution in a new attempt to storm the positions of the Russian proletariat, they will again be repulsed. The time has gone by when the destiny of the Russian people can be determined by the decisions of Sazonov 8: Co. That time will never return.
British Imperialism in Egypt DECEMBER 18, 1914. Egypt was formally declared :1 protectorate of Britain, which became entirely responsible for its government and administration. We declared Hussein Kamil to be Sultan (no longer Khedive. and he has since been succeeded by the Sultan Fouad, who is reigning at the present moment. But the Sultan of Egypt only takes important action on the advice of the High Commissioner representing the King. Sir Reginald VVingate was appointed to this oﬂice on january t, 1917, but is now in England. and all power at the moment is in the hands of General Allenby, who is virtually dictator.
During the war Egypt has been under exceedingly severe military restrictions amounting to a. very large measure of martial law. and governed on the civil side by the ﬂats of the High Commissioner and on the military by the orders of the General Ofﬁcer in Com mand of the Forces in Egypt.
The High Commissioner receives his orders from the Foreign Office and the from the War Ofﬁce. The Home Government, therefore, is directly responsible for the executive acts of the civil and military aides of the Egyptian Government.
When it became necessary during the war to raise a large body of men for transport duties, road making and other work on the lines of communications of the army in Egypt recourse was naturally had to the men on the spot. the Egyptian Fellaheen.
The Egyptian Fellah, or peasant, of whom there are about Ooo, ooo in all Egypt. is a simple. labor ious. almost entirely illiterate, man. The vast number of these people are Moliammedans. and they live in the little villages of mud hovels and in the small towns of Egypt all along the course of the Nile. lieir living depends on their daily work in their ﬁelds: they are intensely conservative and home loving. So big a factor is this in their character that there are practically no Egyptian sailors, the voyage even to Greece taking them too long away front their homes.
Besides the Fellaheen there are about 1, 000, 000 other people in Egypt, including all the European, and this 1, 000, 000, who correspond roughly to the educated and propertied classes, include the small group ofI educated non European Egyptians. who are nationalists. To the peasantry our civil and military administrators turned for help when men were needed. and devised a plan of voluntary enlistment in the Labor Corps.
Donkey ransjmrt Corps or Camel ransport Corps, for service with the IE. Ii.
The period of enlistment was to be for six months tas a rule. the rate of pay good from the peasant standpoint. and food. clothing. blankets and tentagc were also to be provided. certain number of men enlisted readily enough.
Then there came a pause. and men were still required Orders were then sent round to stimulate the recruiting. and eventually a press gang method was established. friend described to me how it was done. party of recruiters would go up to one of the little mud villages (many look like big ant hills) and wait for dusk when the fellalieen would return from the ﬁelds. When they returned they were rounded up lii. cattle. and the suitable ones picked out and cnlistcii If they refused to volunteer they were From The Red Flag of Canada lashed with the Egyptian shorthide whip until they changed their minds.
There were boys of 14 taken and men of 70 or even over.
The medical examination, if any, was a farce, and men gravely ill were sent to do military duties. Once the men were enlisted discipline was maintained by the free use of the lash, and whippings were so common that a medical ofﬁcer told off to oversee the administration of the punishment arranged to have his sicll parade and his whipping parade at the same time, the whipping parade being quite near to his tent where he saw the sick, so that he could overlook both functions (with a little agility) at the same time.
The men received their pay, understand, but rations were often deﬁcient, and clothing, blankets and in the Shops By HE advocacy of mass action means to educate the masses. 1) in the theory of revolutionary Socialism and (2) the necessity of its application to the actual problems of revolutionary action.
Assuming. then, that this is our present task, think that the Left Wing is accomplishing this task rather incompletely: and that the main and central problem of preparing the masses for action is considered only from time to time when an opportunity presents itself, as during periods of large strikes.
We must organize our comrades and sympathizers in the unions and the shops for the purpose of educating the masses of the workers in our theory and practice.
An organization committee of the Socialist Party in every locality should get immediately in touch with the comrades in the different unions for the purpose of organizing in the shops, where the particular comrades are working, a group of or men, which should get in touch with a propagandist at least once a week: while the comrade of the propaganda committee is spreading the theory of revolutionary Soc alism. explaining from our point of view the present situation and emphasizing the necessity of increasing the number of similar shop groups, etc.
in industries where several hundred or thousand workers are employed, every shop group should elect a delegate to a factory executive committee which should direct the whole propaganda work in that particular industry.
in large cities where there are many factories, these groups should be ready to connect us with the masses. so that when the day for mass action comes we shall control real power.
This work will prove as eﬂicient as it did in Russia. it should proceed under the direction of the. ciitral Executive Committee of the Socialist Party, and in secret. if necessary.
Mass action without the masses of the workers is an empty phrase.
tentage very often deﬁcient. In the winter of 191718 Egyptians died like ﬂies as the result of epidemics of typhus fever and other diseases, cold and insufficient food.
The medical arrangements for the men were entirely inadequate, and the sickness rate and death rate would prove interesting, if grim reading, if they could be obtained. Egyptians were treated so brutally in their own units that they were afraid to report sick and those discharged as permanently unﬁt on medical grounds were not exempt from being recruited again by the next press gang party which came to their village. Very frequently indeed also men were kept beyond the stipulated time of their contract service.
In addition to these raids on the homes of the idllaheen for men we also requisitioned nearly the whole of their donkeys and their camels at any rate, all the good ones.
Of course, these animals were paid for, but the peasant cultivator could not make a few piastres do the work of a four footed assistant. Also we bought up much food, and directly and indirectly, as a result of the presence of large bodies of troops in Egypt, the cost of living went up tremendously without a corresponding rise in wages.
Before November last the Egyptian papers even which are censored as to practically every word by a semi military ofﬁcial were reporting riots around food stores: and shops. where half a dozen people were killed. In Alexandria practically all the poorer classes were undated Egyptian and European alike.
Is it very remarkable, therefore, that we were hated and detested in Egypt, and that it was currently said that all Egyptians were pro German?
What have said hitherto is the economic social foundation of the trouble.
But this has not contented our Imperialists. We have conquered Mesopotamia, Palestine, Syria and Turkey and been studiously mysterious and vague about what we are going to do with these countries. re we going to turn the Arabs out? That is a question which Egyptians of the highest standing could not get answered when they asked it of those in power.
How, then, should the Arab in his village get an answer?
And the rumor ran from village to village. from camp to camp. of some vague disaster overhanging the Arab Moslem world from the inﬁdel Frank world. Is it any wonder we lighted up religious fanatism?
In the eas nationality does not exist as it does in the West, and its place is taken in Egypt, Palestine, Syria and adjoining countries by the sentiment of religion. Men feel themselves one as Mohammedans.
Egyptian nationalism is thus only the local expression of Near Eastern Mohammedan religious feeling and the more dangerous for that reason.
The whole of the Near East is in ferment. We have treated the Egyptians with gross injustice; we have not cared for their elementary human needs; we have stirred up Mohammedan religious feeling against us; we are now playing the fatuous game of high politics with the destinies of races and continents as though they were card counters.