THE REVOLUTIONARY AGE Saturday, May 10,. 1019 Manifesto of the Communist International cot what forP for their right to remain slaves of England or France. Never did capitalist rule show itself more shameless, never was the truth of colonial slavery, brought into such sharp relief. As a. consequence we witnessed a series of open rebellions and revolutionary ferment in all colonies. In Europe itself it was Ireland which reminded us in bloody street battles that it is still an enslaved country and feels itself as such. In Madagascar. in Annam, and in other countries, the troops of the bourgeois Republic have had more than. one insurrection of the colonial slaves to suppress during the war. In India the revolutionary movement has not been at a standstill for one day. and lately we have witnessed the greatest labor strike in Asia. to which the government of Great Britain answered with armored cars.
In this manner the colonial question in its entirety became the order of the day not alone on the green table of the diplomatic conferences at Paris but also in the colonies themselves. The Wilson program, at the very best. calls only for a change in the ﬁrm name of colonial enslavement. Liberation of the colonies can come only through liberation of the working class of the oppressing nations. The workers and peasants not onlv of Annam. Algeria. Bengal. but also of Persia and Armenia. can gain independent existence only after the laborers of England and France have overthrown Llovd George and Clemenceau and taken the power into their own hands, Even now in the more advanced colonies the battle goes on not only under the ﬂag of national liberation but it assumes also an mm and outspdken social character. Capitalistic Europe has drawn the backward countries by force into the capitalistic whirpool. and Socialistic Europe will more tn the aid of! the liberated colonies with its technique. its organization, its spiritual inﬂuence. in order to faciliate their transition into the orderly system of Socialistic economy.
Colonial slaves of Africa and Asia! The hour of triumph of the Proletarian Dictatorship of Europe will also be the hour of your liberation!
II The whole bourgeois world accuses the Communists of destroying liberties and political democracy. That is not true. Having come into power the proletariat onlv asserts the absolute impossibility of ap(Cuminued from page One)
fending his life against robbers to follow the artiﬁcial rules of a French duel that have been set by his enemy. but not followed by him.
In an empire of destruction, where not only the. mgans of production and transportation, but also the institutions of political democracy represent bloody ruins, the proletariat must create its own forms. to serve above all as a bond of unity for the working class and to enable it to accomplish a revolutionary intervention in the further development of mankind.
Such aoparatus is represented in the arkmen (7mm ci Thc old parties, the old unions, have proved incapable, in person of their leaders. to understand. much less to carry out. the task which the new epoch presents to them. The proletariat created a new lllSllllltion which embraces the entire working class, without distinction of vocation or political maturity. an elastic form of organization capable of continually renewing itself. expanding, and of drawing into itself ever new elements, ready to open its doors to the working groups of city and village which are near to the proletariat.
This indispensable autonomous organization of the working class in the present struggle and in the future conquests of different lands. tests the proletariat and represents the greatest inspiration and the mightiest weapon of the proletariat of our time.
Wherever the masses are awakened to consciousness. Workers. Soldiers. and Peasants Councils will he formed. To fortify these Councils. to increase their authority. to oppose them. to the State apparatus of the bourgeoisie. is now the chief task of the class conscious and honest workers of all countries. means of these Councils the working class can counteract that disorganization which has been brought into it by the internal anguish of the war, by hunger. by the violent deeds of the possessing classes. and by the betrayal of their former leaders. By means of these Councils the working class will gain powe in all countries most readily and most certainly when these Councils gain the support of the majority of the laboring population. By means of these Councils the working class. once attaining power. will control all the ﬁeld of economic and cultural life. as in Soviet Russia.
The collapse of the imperialistic State, czaristic to most democratic, goes on simultaneously with the collapse of the imperialistic military system. The armies of millions, mobilized be Imperialism, could remain steadfast only so long as the proletariat remained obedient under the yoke of the bourgeoisie. The complete breakdown of national unity signiﬁes also an inevitable disintegration of the army. Thus it happened, ﬁrst in Russia. then in Austria Hungary, then in Germany.
The same also is to be expected in other imperialistic states. Insurrection of the peasants against the landowner. of laborer against capitalist. of both against the monarchic or democratic bureaucracy. must lead inevitably to the insurrection of soldier against commander and. furthermore, to a sharp division between the proletariat and bourgeois elements within the.
army. The imperialistic war which pitted nation against nation, has passed and is passing into the civil war which lines up class against class. The outcry of. the bourgeois world against the civil war and the red terror is the most colossal hypocrisy of which the history of political struggles can boast.
There would be no civil war if the exploiters who have carried mankind to the very brink of ruin had not prevented every forward step ofthe laboring masses. if they had not instigated plots and murders and called to their aid armed help from outside to maintain or restore their predatory privileges. Civil war is forced upon the laboring classes. by their arch enemies.
The working class must answer blow for blow. if it will not renounce its own object and its own future which is at the same time the future of all humanity.
The Communist parties. far from conjuring up civil war artiﬁcially, rather strive to shorten its duration.
as much as possible in case it has become an iron necessity tn minimize the number of its victims, and above all to secure victory for the proletariat. This makes necessary the disarming of the bourgeoisie at tlie proper time, the arming of the laborer. and the formation of a communist army as the protector of the rule of the proletariat and the inviolability of the social structure. Such is the Red Army of Soviet Russia which arose to protect the achievements of the working class against every assault from within or without.
The Soviet Army is inse arable from the Soviet State.
Conscious of the wor historic character of their mission, the enlightened workers strove from the yer beginning of the organized Socialist moveplying the methods of bourgeois democracy and creates the conditions and fomis of a higher working class democracy. The whole course of capitalistic development undermined political democracy, not only by dividing the nation into two irreconcilable classes.
but also by condemning the numerous petty bourgeois and semi proletarian elements. as well as the slum proletariat, to permanent economic stagnationand political impotence.
In those countries in which the historical development has furnished the opportunity.
the working class has untilized the regime of political democracy for its organization against Capitalism In all countries where the conditions for a worker revolution are not yet ripe. the same process will go on. But the great middle layers on the farms. as well as in the cities. are hindered by Capitalism in their historic development and remain stagnant for whole epochs. The peasant of Bavaria and Baden who does not look beyond his church soire. the small French wine ymwer who has been ruined by the adulter atinns practiced by the hit: capitalists. the small farmer of America plundered and betraved by bankers and legislators all these social ranks which have been shoved aside from the main road of development bv Capitalism, are called on paper by the regime of political democracv to the administration of the State. In realitv. however, the ﬁnanceoligarchv decides all important questions which determine the destinies of nations behind the back of parliamentary democracy.
Particularly was this true of the war question. The same applies to the question of peace.
If the ﬁnance oligarchy considers it advantageous to veil its deeds of violence behind parliamentary votes. then the bourgeois State has at its command in order to gain its ends all the traditions and attainments of former centuries of upper class rule multiplied by the wonders of capitalistic technique: lies.
demagogism. persecution. slander. bribery.
calumny and terror. To demand of the proletariat in the ﬁnal life and death struggle with Capitalism that it should follow lamb1ike the demands of bourgeois democracy The Most Important Book of the Year Just Opt!
ment for an international union. The foundation stone of this union was laid in the year lie cral. polirv. Lenin and Part Noun le at th e end of August. an: Moscow Confcrcncc and Ihc problems of the future. The Proletariau Revolution, Connuers. by Louis liraina Sopremher to Januarv thc stituent Assemhlv mentsl.
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The Social Revolution in Germany By Louis Fraina funtlamcntnl study of the great struggle in Germany. which is at the same time a study in revolutionary Socialism.
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112 Pages; 25 a Copy. drcss all orders THE REVOLUTIONARY AGE 885 Washington St. Boston, Mass. a rt i ve the Conrncludcs articles of Lenin and Trotzky and docuPart Six Thr. Revolutionary Struggle for Peace. by Leon Trotzky and Lenin (December to Brest Litovsk ti The Soviet Republic and its Problems. by Supplenicntary li oreign Relations (July to October, 1918; Lenin.
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Part Seven Lenin (May, r918. ludispens1864 in London, in the ﬁrst International.
The Franco Prussian War. from which arose the Germany of the Hohenzollerns, tindermined the First Intemational. giving rise at the same time to the national labor parties.
As early as 1889 these parties united at the Congress of Paris and organized the Second International. But during this period the center of gravity of the labor movement rested entirely on national ground. conﬁning 1tself within the realm of national parliamentarism, to the narrow compass of national states and national industries. Decades of organizing and labor reformisni created a generation of leaders most of whom gave verbal recognition to the program of social revolution but denied it in substance. They were lost in the swamp of reformism and adaptation to the bourgeois state The opportunistic character of the leading parties of the Second International was ﬁnally revealed aud led to the greatest collapse of the movement in an its history when events required revolutionary methods of warfare from the labor parties. Just as the war of 1870 dealt a deathblow to the First International by revealing that rhere was not in fact behind the social revolutionary program any compact power of the masses, so the war of 1914 killed the Second International by showing that above the consolidated labor masses there stood labor parties which con yer ted themselves into servile organs of the bourgeois state.
This includes not only the social patriots who today are openly in the camp of the bourgeoisie as preferred conﬁdential advisers and reliable hangmen of the working class, but also the hazy. ﬁckle and irresolutc Socialist Centre which is today trying to revive the Second International, e. the narrowness. opportunism and revolutionary impotence of their predecessors, Thc Independents of Germany. the present Maiori ty of the Socialist Party in France. the Independent Labor Party in England, and similar groups.
are actually trying to re establish themselves in the position which the old oﬂicial parties would be the same as to ask a man who is de(Conh nued on page 591.