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The New York Communist Why Political Democracy Must Go By John Reed to activities of union represented a great area.
son.
without becoming unr whit better off than when tbey comHe kw nu ud.
IV.
demanded economic reforms which would not de all sorts of extraneous matters, such as a universal WHE history of Socialism in America is of the stroy existing political institutions.
language, woman suffrage, freedom of sexual reThe estabsorbing nieres. Every eneca ineofy of The first appearance in this country of Marxian lations. This imperilled the very successful cohorts for a descent upon the 3d, 5th Socialism was in 1852 3, when Joseph Weydemeyer, propaganda of the Central Committee among labor nings of the factory system, had its immediate reper a friend and disciple of Marx and Engels, came to organizations. Section 12 pursued its activities in cussion in the New World. The present Left Wing New York and organized a short lived revolutionary the name of the International, refusing to recognize movement in the Socialist Party, with its reflex of society known as the Proletarier bund. Then he at the authority of the Central Committee, and appeal the new tendencies of European Socialism, is, in tempted to spread his ideas in the ranks of the ing to the General Council in London to become the that characteristic, not exceptional.
trade unions forming at the time, and organized an leading Section in America which was rejected.
For example, in 1826 the Englishman, Robert association among the German workers called the Finally the foreign sections decided to put a stop the Owen, moved to America and started his New Har General Workingmen Alliance, which began the mony colony. About the same time Albert Bris publication of a Communist paper called Die Refourteen sections met and dissolved the Central bane (father of Arthur Brisbane, Mr. Hearst The moven spread. similar organiza Committee, reorganizing under the name of the right hand man. introduced into America the tion was started among the English speaking workFederal Council, and excluding Section 12 and a philosophy of Fourier, to which he converted Hor ers. But the growing wave of trade unionism finally few sympathizing sections, which they offered adace Greeley; this resulted in a series of communistic overwhelmed it, and Marxian Socialism, with its mittance on the basis of the following propositions: experiments in co operative industry and agricul conception of the class struggle, its recognition of Only the labor question to be treated in the ture. Greeley abandoned pure Fourierism, and trades unionism and tinkered with profit sharing and other varieties of until after the Civil Wutical action, disappeared organization. Only new sections to be admitted two thirds cooperation, that led to the great movement for The First International, founded in London in of whose members are wage laborers.
producers and consumers cooperatives in New 1864, for which Karl Marx wrote the inaugural adEngland, which culminated and then died down in Section 12 to be excluded, as strangers to the eighties.
dress, began with an organization of British trade the labor movement.
The characteristic of native American social breakers into England from the continent. It de lectuals, refused. The German sections called a Section 12, being entirely composed of intelto prevent the importation of strikeideas was their intense individualism. The econom: veloped into a sort of general Workers Union, in national convention to legalize their coup etat.
ic reason for this was, the historical condition of whose ranks two theories battled; that of Mazzini, The General Council in London made an investiconcentration of labor. and capital in cities with the ader calling the marwhen she be interefits of capital gration, and in 1872 Section 12 was expelled from loss of individual liberty characteristic of a popu of is directly descended. and that of Marx, refused to accept the decision, and called a national lation largely agricultural and scattered thinly over who emphasized the class solidarity of labor in all convention of its own, in which lands. Not until the Bakuninites almost captured thirteen Sections, mostly English speaking. This One of the earliest native social philosophies was the movement in the early seventies did the actual convention denounced the interference of the Gentranscendentalism, which took various forms, including the esthetic individualism of Thoreau; the the early philosophy of the International was based intention to appeal to the General Congress of the program of Socialism become the leading issue. eral Council in American affairs, and declared its intellectual on the economic organization of the workers into International, at the Hague, in 1872.
ideas, however, were considered so dangerous to society that he was not permitted to lecture at Harv. seizure of the political state. took ten years for posed the Marxians, they did not ally themselves ard University; the associationist cooperative ac. this idea to become firmly established in America. with Bakunin and his faction although at the tivity of Channing, grafted onto Fourierism; and On the other hand, the Lasallean agitation of Hague Congress Bakunin supported the delegates finally, the revolutionary ideas of Orestes Brown1863 son in Germany was immediately reproduced here. of Section 12, who were expelled with him from the Lasalle emphasized political action, the political International. The new organization dominated by Brownson, of the above, was the only real member Section 12 turned its attention to politics. At the of the workingelas. It is interesting here to quote loped by theher State first this capture to be fol from his article. The Laboring Classes. pubsame time, the convention of the regular Interco operativnition by Siete credit.
national in America proclaimed as its intention to lished in 1810. an account of the factories of New In 1865 there was formed in New York the Gen rerue the working classes from the influence and Enfiand, where the workers were mostly women: eral German Workingmen Union, which sulke The great man wear out their health, spritis and morale power of all political parties, and show that the existence of all these parties is a crime and a threat quently became Section of the International. Its against die working classes. It did not recognize menced later. The bilis of mortality in these villages are original declared: not striking admi, fu: the pr girl when they can that the time was yet ripe for political action. Under the name of the General German Worktoil no longer prime to dir ingmen Union are united all Social Republicana: orthodox Marxian organization in America, gave In the Hague Congress, Sorge, representing the det sight on earth than one of our factory viilager presents.
when the bed at break of day at the hour dil bicobas particularly those who regard Ferdinand Lasalle as. out hundreds of of opera the most eminent champion of the working class, as lites not entitled to representation, that the native AmerRead this, and then go to Lawrence, or Provi for the purpose of reaching on all social questions.
point of view While in Europe icans were practically all speculators, while the imdence, or Fall River today. The only difference is that now the workers are foreign women, while then only a general revolution can form the means of migrants alone constituted the wage earning Class they were Americans.
The headquarters of the International was transBrownson had had never seen the Communist cation of the masses will instill them with the de gree of self confidence that is indispensable for the ferred to New York in 1873. From then isterife Manifesto. Yet in 1840 he advocated the overeffective and intelligent use of the ballot, and will developed within its ranks, until the convention of throw of the capitalist state, and declared any means from he says: the yoke of cal action pure and simple, as against the organizayears before this, however, there had been again split the American International, and the tion of trade unions as a basis Seven for And is this measure to be easily carried? Not at all.
political action, It will cost infinitely more than it cost to abolish either established a Marxian organization, the Communist political actionists permanently withdrew, and hereditary monarchy or hereditary nobility. It is a great Club, based on the Communist Manifesto, among started the Social Democratic Party of North Amer.
measure and a startling. The rich, the business community, whom were many members afterward prominent in will never voluntarily consent to it, and we think we know ica. At the same time, the Labor Party of Chicago the too much of lauman nature to believe that it will ever be merican International, and who conducted a effected peaceably. It will be effected only by the strong, Becker.
voluminous correspondence with Marx, Engels and was formed.
In Europe, too, the workingmen were building arm of physical force. It will come, if it ever comes only at the conclusion of a car, the like of which the In 1868, the Communist Club and the Working International. And this had its effect upon the up political parties in place of federations of the world has yet never witnessed, and from achich, however inevitable it may seem to the eye of philosophy, the heart of humanity recoils with horror.
Social Party of New York and vicinity. mais American labor movement. But the chiel reasons We are not ready for this measure yet. There is much esting to note here that this party was, out of tendency toward political organization were the disastrous effects of the panic of 1873, which bring it before the legislature. The time, however. has tinctly social reform party, advocating progressive movement, and a desire to make Socialism more deference to the English speaking workers. a dis practically destroyed the American trade union in the public mind, and society prepared for acting on it. income taxes, abolition of national banks, right of to the American workers that is, to the Another direction taken by native American issue of paper money reserved to the Government, small property holders.
social theories was reform of the systems of exproved it a failure. In December of 1869, it joined were perfecting the first of their powerful ecoan eight hour law, etc. The campaign of 1868 But at the same time the American workingmen Josiah Warren, the first American anarchist, the International, and began work of Socialist study nomic organizations, the two even then beginning opened a series of stores where goods were sold at and general Socialist propaganda, on the basis of their struggle for mastery on the industrial fieldcost, and the labor of the saleemnen was paid for Marx Capital.
the Knights of Labor and the craft union movement: by an equal amount of labor by the purchaser. He In the next two years a number of new sections Politically, the rank and file of both these organfourded several colonies, which were based on the of the International were organized, consisting izations were entirely impregnated with petit bourprinciple that price should be determined by labor mostly of foreign immigrants. There was a French geois psychology: The Pittsburgh General Labor cost. He was followed by William Beck, with his section, a Bohemian section, and several Irish sec Convention of 1876 was captured by the Knights ticket system of doing away with banks, and the tions. But besides the foreign immigrants, there of Labor, who endorsed Greenbackism, from cheap substitution of of purchasing power for currency. was another group, Americans, who joined money to the protective tariff, and thus cut adrift Then came William Weitling, the German immi the International. This was made up of in from the Socialists, who withdrew from the congrant, with his plan for a bank of exchange, intellectuals, inheritors of the traditions of trans vention.
The result was to unite the Socialist factions, was a compromise with the ideas which he had fifties. They had formed an organization called which came together and adopted a declaration of first brought from Europe in 1847 common owner the New Democracy, whose platform advocated principles taken from the General Statutes of the ship of all property and centralized management of electoral reforms, such as the referendum, and International, and organized the Workingmen production and exchange. The reason for this State Socialism.
Party of the United States, which immediately change is very significant. Both in Europe and In 1870 the New Democracy disbanded, and its plunged into politics.
America the merchant capitalist was the dominant members joined the International as sections and My purpose in thus reviewing the early history of enemy of the working class. But in Europe it was 12, of New York. Section 12, under the leadership the American Socialist movement in detail, is to call realized that a social and political revolution was of two necessary to get rid of him indicated by the Revo. Claflin Sisters, Victoria Woodhull and Tennessee attention to the nature of its action in the American well known advocates of social freedom, political structure. Of course it is obvious that the lutions of 1818. while in America the workers quickly became famous. It turned its attention to influence of Socialism upon the American state up a true