The New York Communist The Productivity of Russian Labor From the Russian Soviet Government F irat Annual Report (Continued from last week. At the beginning of 1918 a deﬁnite break became obvious in the mood of the workers. in the sense of recognizing the necessity of introducing strict labor discipline and a readiness and willingness to have the piecewage established. A! the same time the administration of the umblishment undertook the planning and gradual realization of a project of technical reorganization of the factory produc.
lion; the factory committee, at the same time selecting the best methods of introducing labor discipline, propagated the idea of the necessity of the latter amongst the masses of the workers.
in the Spring of the present year there was or ganized a mixed committee of representatives of the administration and workers organizations, which worked out rules for the internal factory managements; these were later conﬁrmed by a general meeting of the workers and the administration of the establishment.
The practical introduction of labor disciplinary rules which in the main correspond to the labor laws, having for its purpose the introduction of the piecewage, required a certain time for preliminary work and the improvement of the technical equipment of the shops; but during June, July and August these problems were in a greater or lesser degree solved, and the factory now works completely on the bases of piece wage scales.
The introduction of piece work was preceded by serious doubts on the part of the workers as well as on that of the administration. because they feared that at the beginning the wages of piece workers would prove insufﬁcient as a result of the general disintegration of production, and also because the workers themselves had lost the habit of more intensive labor. The workers greatly doubled the success of the enterprise, particularly on account of their physical exhaustion as a result of poor nutrition; it seemed that the general desire to establish the piecevwage system was threatened by no small dangers. it was decided that at the be ginning, approximately for about three months, the rules of labor discipline would be applied with the necessary laxity. and that to the tariff scales there would be added, in case of necessity, pre payment to individual workers in cases where the price ﬁxing commission found that the failure to produce the output required was not a result of negligence or lack of skill on the part of the workar himself, but the result of the general decline of diciency in production.
But ﬁnally, however, these fears proved to be considerably exaggerated, and the output of the workers turned out to be completely satisfactory, so much so that the above mentioned correctives had to be applied in rare case only.
While establishing new wage scales, the latter were increased as compared to the rates of 1914 proportionately to the average exchange, with an additional 25 on account of the shortening of the working day from 10 to hours, 25 on account of the decrease of labor efﬁciency as a result of poor nutrition and about to 10 on account of a somewhat lowered norm accepted for an average daily output in 1914.
Thus the accepted increase in piece wages for regular work, towhich class most labor belongs, showed itself, as regards the hourly output, in an increase of 50. and in regard to a daily output an increase of 35. Some jobs, having no direct examples in 1914, were revalued anew in accordance with the experience of the daily output; in several factories the above mentioned increases were made.
As a result of wags calculated thus. it was proven that the average weekly pay of piece workera has exceeded the daily pay by 30 16070, an average of about 80. e. the average output of Workers during the eight hour working day is already now about equal to that produced in 1910 during a ten hour working day. The comparison of several separate operations has enabled us to discovu the avaage hourly production of labor. The time passed since the introduction of piaeework is not sanctum to warrant a final eonelua mn of the results achieved. but rte ashlar, the By Lomv at that the hourly productivity a labor in 1914 has already been attained, must be considered more or less established. In the Inhale, with the clinic nalian a the technical and economic disintegration of production, and with an increased adaptability o the worker: themselves to more illicit rive labor, we must expect a marked increau in production irrespective of any changer in the technical aspects the work.
Similar information we have regarding the Tilmans and Luberetskoye factories in the Moscow districts. The reports of a number of chemical, powder and other factories show an increase in the productivity of labor to, a norm approaching that of peace time.
At the present time when the most acute period of hunger must be considered as passed, when the harvesting of the grain goes on in the main satis. actorily, one may and should expect hubs im: provements in this ﬁeld For was not hunger that merciless power which could destroy everything, as the workers representatives used to say?
The proletarian gradually takes possession of industry. or the year of the revolution he can with pride view the past route and to look at the incarnation of his slogans in ordinary practical life. There is much more for him to do, but the most diﬁcult has already been achieved Now everything is clear: the road is found, the work begun. With the greatest heroism the Rue sian worker realizm his economic system of Communism, grarlually and infallibly perfecting its mechanism. That which the bourgeois world of Europe could not manage, that which the Kerensky band of chatterboxes could not handle, the Russian workers are beginning to accomplish nieces:fully. At the time when bourgeois economy disintegratas more and more with every passing hour, the proletariat: people economy develops and becomes stronger: The ﬁrst already gives 05 the breath of a rotting corpse, the second is just be ginning to live and to blossom. The dead are still clinging to the living, but with growing resolution does the young world push down the old one.
The Russian worker no longer wants to live in a kingdom of ghosts and shadows, he long ngly stretches out his hands to the coming Spring, for ever breaking with the old system. Without compassion or pity he breaks with it, leaving to the bourgeois corpses to bury their dead.
It is necessary to note besides the economic, also the psychological signiﬁcance for the workers of the nationalization of industry. From the moment of the transfer of industries into the hands of the Soviet government, the worker no longer labors for the beneﬁt of a capitalist but for that of the whole republic of proletarians and poor peasants.
lf before nationalization the worker had not sufﬁcient incentive to increase the. intensity of labor to the point of high efﬁciency, that, from the moment of workers control, everything changes radically.
Upon him now depends the ﬁnding of raw materials and fuel, the obtaining of orders, the delivery of the products, the ﬁnancing of production and the payment of the workers. The deep signiﬁcance of the November Revolution as it is prompted by the class feeling of the workers, consists in nationalisation, which is becoming socialization, of the whole industry.
Those who daily and nightly sing funeral songs ever the economic menu: of the Soviet gavernRUSSIA VETCHERINKA ro cannons nu: overture or rat new ummumms nu be gieen by as.
5th RUSSIAN UKRANIAN BRANCH 214 Crud Sta est ON SATURDAY. MAY 17. 1919 Ahiuinn e ta merit, do not notice the basic tendency to an inerean in the productivity of labor which has markadh developed in the last few months.
The workers and their government cannot manage industry! Back to capitalism! Such is the revolutionary slogan of the Capitalist Mons bloc.
Alas! Inerciless history here also laughet them. in Ukraine and Siberia the power has temporarily passed from the workers to the bout geoisie, and the latter immediately has replaced the economic plan of the proletariat by one of in own. And what are the results of this change?
To all the critics of the Communist program of the Paris workers of 1871, Marx replied Doas capitalistic society still exist in its maiden state of purity and chastity? Have not its bases developed.
its self deception been revealed, its prostituted reality been discovered?
Back to capitalism! Here is the sole light house amidst the stormy wave of the Communist Revolution. Thus think Socialists suckled by a hourgeois wet nurse in childhood ﬁfty years after the experience of the Commune.
The capitalists must raurn to the factories and mills and pull the reins harder, because labor discipline and the productivity of labor have decreased They forga that the fall in the productivity of labor is an incessant process that went on with gigantic stridts both during Czar iam and Kerensky ism.
Let the impartial language of the oﬁcial statistics of the capitalist government of Skoropadsky give a clear and exhaustive reply to the question at issue.
The output of coal and anthracite in the Donal basin was shown in 1918 in the following ﬁguru of millions of poods: January. 80 million pooh February. 38 March. 65. April. 45 May coal. 27 May anthracite. 20 lune coal. 12 June anthracite. For the railroads it became nmessary to in port Silsian coal (from Germany. in July a bourgeois genius proposes to increase the mum: of the Donetz basin. to 18 millions poods. a ﬁgure, according to our conviction, greatly ex.
agge rated. The Kiev ﬁnd: of professors and hourgeois, relying upon Austro German military and capitalistic forces, for two and a half months of its works, can only admit the complete failure of its economic program. However, of this speaks not only the impartial language of ﬁgures, but the Austro Gaman command itself. in whose control the coal mines were placed. Not long ago it unnﬁcially put to the members of the peace delegation of the Soviet Republic the following question: On what conditions would the Soviet Republic be willing to assist them in organizing the coal output in the Dorset: basin? To ask snchaquestionmeanstoeonfesatheirownim potenoe. But not only theeoal industry is in a Into of complae paralysis, the entire metaHnrgy of the South is also dead since the day of the capture of power in Ukraine by the adventurous unitar who ooldthemselveatothesharhofGamanandAl eIrian napilnlilm.
Unda conditions of the plant revolution the bourgeoisie is no longs upable of managing or of reconstructing indnstry, while the proletariat each day makes pole ion of than all the ﬁrm.
Frightened, the bourgeois do not want to an the tendency toward the atmgthaiing of labor control; stubborn in their desire to ova throw the workers dictatorship, they close their ears what nudity spaahofaninareanintheproduetivlryollaha.