PAGE NewarkAnti NaziProtest Split by Stalinists, YPSL.
On Sunday night, Nov. 18, Law rence Dennis, fascist, came to the Universalist Church in Newark to speak on the Coming Fascism.
About 150 were in the mass picket line to protest his speaking, a demonstration called by a united front between the and However, the organization that set on foot the united front in Newark and played a militant part in the picket line was excluded from the united front negotlations. Following Is a factual account of the united front negotiations and of the demonstration Sunday night, and of the part the excluded Spartacus Youth League played throughout.
Sept. iii Spartacus Youth League (S. delegates in a discussion with two EU. members of the Yr. on the united front, proposed a joint letter of and to the asking the latter to participate in a united front on specific issues. They were invited to discuss the matter before the next meeting of the Oct. At EC. meeting our delegates repeated the proposal, stressing the necessity of a broad united front of all working class organizations, especially as in Newark there was a strong fascist youth movement. The voted to send a letter to their NC. to ask author ity to send the joint letter with the SALL. to the for the purpose of effecting the united front in Newark. The NC. gave them this authority. They voted to send a joint letter with the Nov. The received communication stating We realize that the is anxious to bring about a united front, and we extend to you the hand of comradeship. inviting us to semi delegates to a. united front conference at thcl headquarters (Y. on Nov. 11.
The was invited through a similar letter.
Nov. Thc sent no official delegate to the conference because the Trotskyites were invited. Karlson,. organizer, appeared however, to present their viewpoint to the Tipsels. His main arguments were that we were In slgniflcent and we should prove our revolutionary sincerlty by not opposing something so important as a united front. Our speaker who ed out that something insignificant could not prevent something as important as the united front. Fur ther, that in the last two years they had entered live united fronts with us in New York alone, and that as sincere revolutionaries it was our duty to determincdly fight for a broad united front including all working class organizations, as against the sectarian united front policy of the More, that the national policy as stated by the is: All subdivisions are instructed to refuse to agree to any arrangements which barred any group from the united front that is willing to cooperate in support of the joint program. Obviously, the national policies of the and are directly opposed to the national policy of excluding certain organizations from the united front, the latter being the program of the Karlson stated that the and both had their national policies and that there would be no uniteu front if we were included, at least with the participating. Y. delegate stated that they were considering a state wide unitv ed trout and that the would automatically be excluded from the first. negotiations, as they are not a state organization, but that the would insist on their inclusion in the united front. This latter would apply locally, that is.
to Newark. The meeting broke up here, and the delegates left.
After we left a united front was formed on the some day on a local scale between and against the speaking of the Fascist Dennis. We knew nothing about this until Thursday night. On Thursday a joint leaflet appeared on the streets (of 20. and calling for a demonstration to stop the Fascist Dennis from speaking. Thursday night an delegate approached two members of the joint committee for the demonstration asking to be included in it. The refused, saying we would have to march under their banners as individuals; the old United Front from Below again!
Friday night a special meeting of the decided to participate in the demonstration under their own banners. 0n the night of the demonstration a picket line of about 150 marched, about forty of whom were under our banners. Our sloTllE MILITANT Entered as a second class mail Post Office at New York, NY. Under the act of March 1879.
Published Weekly by the Communist league of America 144 Second Ave, New York, Vol. 7, No. 1. Whole No. 251)
SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 24, 1934 EDITORIAL BOARD Martin Abern James Cannon Max Shachtman Maurice Specter Arne Swabeck.
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50: per half year Canada and Foreign: 81. 50 per year; 750 for guns For the United Front of all Working Class Organizations and No Platforms for Fascists echoed up and. down the picket line. When a Spartacist was mauled by a cop, crs and Yipsels shouted Hold your ground, Leo. After the mass picketing an anti fascist rally was held in a nearby hall.
Our delegate asked the chairman for one of our speakers to be allowed the floor. He spoke about expenses. We agreed to share it.
We were refused a speaker, and our banners were removed from the front of the room. The Wobblies, incensed at the exclusion of what they termed the militant pickets. wanted to start a demand for an speaker from the floor. However, we dld not want a recurrence of the Madison Square riot. The Wobblies went outside and in a street meeting condemned strongly the splitting tactics of the The Lovestoneites and the publicly condemned the sectarian exclusion of the from the demonstration.
The Fascists are strong in New ark. and drill often. They are armed.
New broad united fronts must be created. United Workers Guard is on the order of the day, which must be representative of all labor organizations. We call upon all workers everywhere: Against sectorianlsml For the united front of all working class organizations. ARNE COLTS.
Spartacus Youth Convention Frisco and Los Angelou delegates to the first national convention of the Spartacus Youth League, to he held In New York City beginning December 3, are already on their way. In addition, delegates are expected from Minneapolis. Youngstown, Pittsburgh, Newark, Philadelphia, New Haven, Toronto, Canada, Chicago and New York. Fraternal delegates are expected from such cities as Detroit and Columbus, Ohio.
The first national convention will coincide with the third anniversary of the publication of Young Spartacus and the beginning of our youth movement. 0n the basis of the experience accumulated and the forces assembled in this period the Spartacus Youth are now ready to go forward to greater deeds.
Provisions are being made for sleeping quarters and feedan of delegates. All friends able to house a delegate, contribute food or money should write to: Rose Kai snot, 144 Second Avenue. New York City.
The convention agenda will in clude reports on all the draft resolutions covering every important phase of youth work, the planned fusion of the and the and election of a new national com.
Most of the branches of the Sir. have had intensive discussions of the draft resolutions. In fact discussion on the basic problems of the revolutionary youth movement has been taking place for over a year in the ranks of Spartacus Youth on the basis of the draft resolutions on youth work sent out by the national committee at that.
Weavers Set Strike Deadline (Continued from Page 1)
Keller, be elected delegate to the convention. motion was made and overwhelmingly carried to reject this recommendation. Snbse; quenily when Keller ran for delegate he received only a handful of, votes.
In the face of the determined resistance and unbroken ranks of the striking dye workers, the bosses found that their trump card, the resort to open force was just a deuce. NOT DYE PLANT IS NOW OPERATING IN THE AREA COVERED BY THE STRIKE. And not a plant will continue to operate until the bosses meet the workers demands. So now the bosses are again resorting to talking with the workers. And the yellow press is again. vowling that the strike will end this week. Not on your terms, gentlemen. monster parade was held last week in Passaic. This week another will be held in Paterson, despite all the obstacles the bosses are trying to put up. The ranks of the silk workers are not to be confused or disorganized this time. Whether the bosses like it or no, whether Keller is sad or glad, this time the issues are goirig to be faced and fought squarely Paterson and the ontire silk industry demand a UNION SHOP and not a piece of DHIK and an arbitration board to maintain unbearable working con ditions. The silk workers demand the 30 OUR WEEK and not production on the stagger plan with discrimination against all militant and active union men. They demand wages on whlch men who work can at least maintain a derent standard and not starve.
IIIE MEANT TWO ANNIVERSARIES ll One aspect of the recent celebration of October in Moscow has been insufficiently dwelt upon by the revolutionary press in the United States. It remained for the bourgeois press, particularly the New York Times, to feature the quiescent. non international, nonrevolutionary character of the 17th anniversary.
It will be remembered that it was not long before November that Karl Radek interview with the Post correspondent. in which he spoke like a labor faker about the hopelessness of the revolutionary movement in bourgeois America, gave the cue of Soviet pacifism to the bourgeois correspondents in Moscow.
Neither Radek e statements to the Post, nor the Denny dispatches on the celebration, have elicited a counter statement from Stalinist quarters.
Lest it be thought that the hourgeois press is slandering Soviet politics, turn to the New Masses of November 13, 1934, and find buried in the editorial paragraphs their only comments on the anniversary of the Revolution: Consolation in Figures The most gratifying way we know of celebrating a Soviet anniversary is a careful perusal of Sovlet graphs and figures. No oratory, no rhetorlc, no poetry can convey the grandeur of the proletarian revolution and socialist construction us can the simple matter of fact statements of Soviet arith»
After citing many really heart ening ares the Stalinist sage continues: Add to this the tremendous gains in the realm of culture; and to this again, the triumphs in international relations during the past twelve months, and you have a record of achievements unparalleled even in the unparalleled history of the Soviets.
The Daily Worker simply prints its own description, which ignores the political angle, while singing a lyric to Socialism. Such doping of the American proletariat calls for the belladonna of sharp critl clsm.
Revisionlsm with a Vengeance No one is surprised at these things any longer. Each year as the Soviet Union grows in mechanA ical strength, the more graceful is the Stalinist curtcsy to the ruling bourgeoisies of the world, the less thought of, and the less beckoned to, is the world proletariat. Arithmetlcal proletarian revolution along with faith in the triumphs in international relations (the League of Nations. express rcvislonism with a vengeance.
Several early anniversaries could be cited to show the contrast between Leninist and Stalinist birthdays. But, to compare the fairest historical example, let us go back to the fifth anniversary.
Twelve years ago the Soviet Union was just raising itself out of Student Strike Slams Robinson Tuesday demonstration at City College was one of the greatest demonstrations that ever shook an American college campus. Over two thousand students participated in twa hour protest strike which culminated in the burning of an effigy of Dr. Robinson, President of the College.
The strike was called to demand the reinstatement of 21 expelled students, to demand the reinstate ment of the suppressed Student Council, and above all to demand the immediate and unconditional removal of Dr. Robinson, sometimes known as Fascist Freddy Robinson.
The 21 students were expelled for protesting the reception of a delegation of Italian Fascist students by Dr. Robinson several weeks ago. At that time the students of turned out en masse, packed the reception hall, and turned the reception into a heated protest against the Fascist toadies of bloody Mussolini.
An Honor to Be a Guts Snipe At that meeting Dr. Umbrella Robinson censured the protesting students for their dlscourtesy (Come, come. boys, let all be gracious to that dear. sweet man, Mussolini. and labeled the protesters gutter snipes. Since that day the gutter snipes faction has grown by leaps and bounds as the students rally to the anti fascist banner, until Dr. Robinson bids fair to be the only non gutter snipe left.
The administration, headed by the aforesaid True Story Robinson was deeply insulted by the discourteous behavior of the militant anti fascists, and proceeded to discipline them in a manner highly reminiscent of the great Mussolini himself. The student council, elected by popular vote, was dissolved; suspensions became commonplace; and the mildest purlor pinks were crossexamined by an administration red squad.
the ashes of civil war. Cities lay in ruins, the population was poor and exhausted, necessitating the introduction of the New Economic Policy, the sharpest right turn ever made in Soviet internal policy.
On November 1, 1922, Mussolini was received by the King in Rome as a hundred thousand blackshlrts were given the key to the capital.
The American was under ground. In Germany the revolutionary tide was ebbing.
Colehlating October Under NEP And in Moscow preparations were made to celebrate the fifth anniversary of the Revolution.
by the assembling of the 4th World Congress of the Comunist International. That is the significant difference between the two anniversaries 1922 and 1934.
Charles Ashleigh. writing in the Comnunlst Review (England) of January. 1923, describes the opening celebration of the Communist International in Petrograd. Two special trains carried the delegates to the Communist Congress, the Congress of the Red International Labor Union and the Congress of the Young Communist International, party workers and labor journalists, from Moscow to Petrograd.
There in the gigantic Uritsky Square a stand had been erected for the delegates. We took our places, and the march past began. They came in at one end of the square, marched past the stand, and left at the other end. We stood there, our hats in our hands, recelving the greetings of the Petrograd proletariat who had come out, on their national revolutionary an»
niversary, to salute their comrades of the Communist lnternational. They passed on and on for hours. And their faces were raised towards us as they passed and ever they cheered. And we cheered back.
Then the Communist International received the salute of the Red Army. and Soviets in Joint Session On the evening of the celebra tion, the Communist International and the Petrograd Soviet sat in joint session. Thus, in the midst of nnexampled enthusiasm on the part of the masses of Petrograd and Moscow. the Fourth Congress of the Communist International began its work on the Fifth Anniversary of the roletarian Revolution in Russia. Communist no view, March, 1923. Many revolutionary leaders came to greet the Fourth Congress and to aid in its deliberations. Lenin explained the New Economic Policy. Trotsky warned of the right danger of social pacifism in the Communist International.
Today What a difference!
Would anyone have dared in 1922 to predict the conditions of the 17th anniversary? Not Stalin himself could then have faced the logic which flowed inexorably from the position he has always held.
Students Expelled movement to oust Dr. Robinson was lnitiated. and met with wide approval. While the squelchDr. Robinson movement was getting under way, the faculty met to discuss final disciplinary action. By a 50 40 vote it was decided to expel the 21 students, and to suspend certain others.
Dr. Robinson, the inimitable scholar of Spinoza, hastened to the press. Unable to find sympathy in the more respectable metropolitan papers be embraced the yellow sheet Heal stamens, and published a scholarly fulmination under the title Punish Student Reds. His lapse into yellow journalism only intensified his unpopularlty among the student body and contributed to the success of Tuesday strike.
The strike itself was dramatic.
reaching a climax in the burning of a two headed effigy of the Doctor.
On one face Dr. Jekyl Robinson, garbcd in his professorial robes, clutched a True Story magazine, on the other his alter ego, Dr. Hyde Robinson proved to have a suspicious resemblance to Signor Mussolini. The two faced monster was burned with the approval of all and to the appropriate strains of the Funeral March.
Class Struggle Roaches Campus This campus struggle, which finds a counterpart in other campus movements all over the country, is an encouraging sign. The campus has long been considered a stronghold of reaction, where no economic issues could disturb the benign repose of the scholars. But under the pressure of continued depression, of growing unemployment, of Fascist advance, and of imminent war, the struggle is penetrating even into the halls of learning.
With Fascism sweeping Europe, with threat of war growing daily the need for a united front of all groups. including trade unions.
workers organizations and students becomes acute. Students can no longer stand passively on the sidelines; they must take their stand: either with the working class, or with the fascists. The students of have shown the way.
The class in State and Revolution with Jack Weber as instructor meets every Monday night. The class in ABC of Marxism every Friday night.
Last week a million men went through Red Square while the world proletariat writhed In defeats. No Congress of the Communist International was assembled to cheer, or to be heartened for further revolutionary struggle. No messages were sent to the bereaved martyrs of Germany, Austria and Spain. Instead Franklin Roosevelt was sending his greetings to Kalinln. In New York in the comfortable patrlcian atmosphere of the east Sixties, Leonid Talonsky, Consul General of the Union of the Union of the Socialist Soviet Republic, celebrated with canapes and cakes.
That is diplomacy. But what was happening in Moscow?
Under the Cloud of Reaction Gone was most of the truculence of other years. The old appeals to the proletariat of other lands to hurl down capitalism were almost entirely lacking from the banners and the proclamations and speeches of the leaders. The lampooning of individual capitalist countries in the efligles carried by workers delegations was reduced to mild take offs on German fascism and Japanese imperialism, as if, since the Soviet Union has been recognized by the United States, admitted into the League of Nations and has formed close diplomatic ties with other countries, a ban had been placed against overly exuberant attacks on capitalism. Illnplnsls on Bovlet Defense The emphasis today was on the internal upbuildlng of the country and on defense against attacks from without. 0n the front of the old truders row, across the square from the Kremlin, enormous red flags were inscribed simply, Workens of the World, Unite. in a half dozen languages, including English. Today provided a visible demonstration of the new attitude toward the capitalistic world that has recently been becoming more and more apparent in Moscow. This is that world revolution will come but not in the way that was foreseen when bolshevism first entrenched itself here. The new conception is that if war should break out between the Soviet Union and capitalist countries it would be on the initiative of the latter and that war for which the capitalist world seems to be feverishly preparing will result in the downfall of capitalist regimes and in the victory of the proletariat that had been expected to follow the World. War. And so the role of communism would be not that of capitalism executioner for cupi talism would commit suicidwbut of its gravedigger. This was the theme of today celebration as evidenced in articles by leading Communist party spokes men in the Soviet press and in the anniversary declaration by the ex ecutive committee of the Communist. International. Times, Nov. Capitalism would commit suicide!
Did not the bourgeois correspondent guess well?
Is that not the kernel of Stalinist fatallsm: the wish fulfillment of Socialism in one country? E P!
ls Needed at Once Thanks to the Minneapolis and Plentywood, Montana branches, this issue of the Militant was able to come out without any emergency appeal to the New York comrades.
Comrade Boulds of Plentywood, who is making a special effort to secure subscriptions on the new drive, sent as and says that this is only the beginning. am leaving today for another county on a Militant sub dnlve, he writes, and adds: As soon as can raise a little gasoline money, am going to the home of every farmer in the section.
Chester Johnson of the Mlnneapolis branch says. The Minneapolis branch has launched a sub drive for the Millthat and is now going full steam ahead. He enclosed 10 on their bundle account and for new subs.
Jeflersou Rail, of Bryan, Ohio, comes back with another dollar on his Pledge to help the Militant in its present crisis, on his bundle and 25c donation from a local reader of the paper.
Doughty of the Los Augeles branch sends by air mall 53 to help us.
From an member of Bryan we received a donation. of Akron says: Enclosed find 60 to be applied as follows: 83 for Militant fund, for a sub and 50 for the Minneapolis Organizer filo. Will see what can be done here towards getting subs for the Militant and increasing the fund. Enclosed please find as my contribution to your appeal in the Militant, signed Max 11. syrups thizer of Chicago.
Fred of Balaton Spa sends to support the Militant. We thank the above mentioned comrades and branches for their special efforts, and hope that next week the list will be twice as big.
SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 24, 1934 Easley Plots Against Boys; Role Revealed (Continued from Page 1)
her go backto the false yarn she was induced to tell at the first trial. This is only one of a dozen miserable schemes now being concocted behind the scenes, while the IL. and Samuel Leibowitz contest each other right to represent the boys in court. The worst of all ls a rotten deal between Leibowitz and the State of Alabama!
The Militant is in a position to state authoritatively while the de tails of Mr. Leibowitz arrange ments are still secret, they have the aid and blessing of none other than Ralph Easley of the National Civic Federation, perhaps the most vicious, bloodthirsty and unscrupulous red hunter and reactionary in the entire United States! The sort of campaign which Leibowitz is soon going to loose upon the world is clearly indicated by his association with such elements.
We understand that Leibowltz has endeavored to cover his intentions by drawing into his vestpocket American Scottsboro Committee leading members of the Socialist Party. We are told that one Socialist flatly refused to go in because he got a snim of Easley in the offing. This does honor to him. but Easley is far from being the only thing wrong with the LeL bowltz set up.
Some weeks ago, the Militant printed a general characterization of how the brought Sum Leibowltz into the case, how he be»
huved in it, how the IL. behaved to him, and what the prospects were. The Militant is now in a position to give more concrete data on the secret history of the relatlons of the IL. to Sam Leibowitz. The following chronological account stands on its own feet: Jan. 1931 19an Browder, Secrefury of the Communist Party and Patterson, Secretary of the IL. propose to retain Samuel Leibowitz. noted defender of gangsters, for new trials of Heywood Paterson and Clarence Norris. National Executive of IL. against opposition of the IL. National Bureau, instructs Patterson to re.
taln Leibowitz, only if the latter agrees to limit himself to discussion of legal and factual qu tions, to make no Macks on the new that the case has general social signifi.
cance, in make no concessions to Southern Bourbon anti Negro attitudes, and to offer no opposition to efforts to win militant nines support for the boys.
Jan On orders from Browder, Patterson and the IL. National Bureau flout the instructions and retain Leibowitz unconditionally, giving him a free hand to express opposltlou to the views and activities of all militant enemies of Southern white chauvinism.
Jan. lip Leibowitz writes that he accepts in order to help keep sacred such ancient shrines of our clvlllzation and our national life as our Caucasian sense of even handed justice. Demands that the match the following views. do not believe it has ever been the desire of the people of the South to deal unfalrly with the Negro. Parsons of substance in the Southern states have recognized for many generations a moral obligation toward the simple and generous folk whom slavery first brought them as chattels. cannot believe that the people of Alabama will be false to their great heritage of honor and to those brave and chivalrous generations of the past in whose blood the history of their State is written.
IL. suppresses this letter and its reply. Taeltly matches Leibowil s views. National Bureau ceases to call meetings to discuss Leibowitz question because it fears to report its violation of the resolution.
March 25. Ii lrst criticism of Leibowitz adivllies on behalf of the ancient shrines appears in The Militant. The Militant alone warned in advance of the dangers involved in the deal with Leibowitz. Jan. 14. Leibowitz attacks Reds. radicals and mass defense, and declares confidence in the sincere desire of the good people of the great South to give every living thing on God green earth a square deal.
March April Retrial of Heywood Paterson in Decatur, Ala.
In open court Leibowitz continues praise of Bourbonism. While affirming defendants innocence, he endorses principle of lynching for guilty. Paterson convicted. Leib»
owitz publicly denounces poor white jurors in the following terms: They are lantern jawed morons. whose months are slits in their faces, whose eyes pop out at you like a frog s, whose chins droop tobacco juice, bewhiskered and filthy.
Simultaneously, he praises the entire system of Bourbon justice in the person of the trial judge. A1n ll Executive of the National Committee for the Defense of Political Prisoners (ally of the IL. adopts unanimous resoln tion criticlzlng Leibowltz for his reactionary expressions and maneuvrcs, and calling on the IL. to reply concretely and uncomproments Stalinist faction begins campaign of abuse and slander of those who proposed criticizing Lelbowitz. IL. refuses to ask capitalist press to print criticisms of Leibowitz, vigorously defends Leibowitz in article in the Daily Worker, and denouncm the Militant for criticizing Leibowitz and the deal with him.
April 28. Wm. Patterson induces packed meeting of the RP. to refuse vote of confidence to Executive which unanimously asked criticism of Leibowitz. factionalists denounce critics of Leib owitz as sabotagers, white chauvinists. aids to lynchers, counter re olntlonarles and Trotskyites. Frank Specter, national organizer, who endorsed the April resolution joins in denouncing those who wrote it.
May Tcn members of the NC including half a dozen members of its Executive and three of the of the resign on the ground that their work has been made impossible by the Stalinlsts attacks. Fearing to harm de fense movement. they suppress their letter of resignation. Commu nist League of America alone continues to expose Leibowitz rotten opportunism, Oct. 1933. Lclbowitz uses Scottshoro prestige to aid Mayor McKee campaign in Harlem; IL. backing Communist Party ticket, makes first genuine attack on Leibowitz not for his Scottsboro policy, but because he is still a Democrat!
00f. 1934. l1. attorneys or rested in Tennessee, charged with attempted bribery of Scottsboro case witness. Lelbowltz solzcs this occasion to break with IL. repealing his customary attacks on mass movements and radicals, and his customary praise of whlte chauvinism and Bourbonism. Surprised and disappointed. the denounces Leibowitz as a.
traitor, and simply attacks him for expression of views it long ago gave him full permission to express.
Leibowitz orders IL. out of case, affirming he is retained by all boys.
Nov. 1934. and Lelbowltz dispute right to represent boys in next trials. Boys, in desperation, shift allegiance from one worthless ally to another several times. defense movement almost de Loibmvifz continues fulmln:Itions against Rods. and eulogies of patriotism and Southern white justice. Wins support of our reactionary Negro persons and one Harlem Department Store publicity agent who makes money out of Scottshoro Sales, and makes deal with Alabama prosecutor to eliminate death sentences in return for a smashing court room attack by prosecution and defense on all radicals and a hymn to patriotism and the ancient shrines Dec. 1934. WILL NEW MOVEMENT BE LAUNCHED TO RETRIEVE THE HORRIBLE MESS PERPETRATED BY THE IL. AND SAMUEL LEIBOWITZ? IT IS UP TO THE 0RGANIZATIONS OF THE WORK»
Wall Street Conspiracy (Continued from Page 1)
called unconvincing by Congressman Dickstein, the chairman of the Committee, who promises further and more. interesting revelations.
Trying to Laugh It Off The various figures implicated in the plot rushed into print the day after the interview broke in a suapiciously universal attempt to laugh it off. J, Morgan said the scheme was a preposterous fabrication. John Davis denied that he had written the speech. General MacArthur called the story the best laugh of the year. And little MacGuire, following the general trend. had the aplomb to claim that the whole business was a publicity stunt. publicity stunt for whom; Morgan and 00. The whole idea of a coup etat in, of course, preposterous. Fascism must have mass support. It receives this support from the middle class which sees no hope for its salvation from the revolutionary movement. The plot is interesting as a forecast of what will occur in America when the working class really awakens, when working class revolution becomes a real threat.
Unless the working class, when it starts to move, moves steadily and forcefully along toward revolution.
unless the revolutionary party is able to carry through a definite and unequivocal revolutionary pol icy, the petty bourgeoisie will be distracted, as they were in Germany to the wily tolls of fascism.
General Butler will bear watching. The Fascist conspirators made no mistake when they picked him as the ideal leader of a fascist movement in America. Whether General Butler exposed them for political reasons, hoping to strengthen hls own reputation for honesty, or whether his repudiation was the result of a sincere distaste for Fascism must remain a moot question for the present. General Butler revelation was, in any case, hardly voluntary, for there mlslngly to the harmful state. were several disinterested persons aware of the conspiracy.