Communist Party
Social Democracy
Socialist Party

Page THE MILITANT November 15, 1928.
November 15, 1928.
THE MILITANT Page The Right Danger in the American Party our social patriotism.
to of uneven the econd economic Europe conseprogram capitalism.
on the consumption, unempl ment, unemploy which transpires and is even being completed in wrote that Trotsky has no reason to refer to Engels ment that the victory of Socialism is possible in one country. We have now at theory which who wrote at a time when THERE COULD BE one capitalist country. To prove its point the teaches that it is possible to build up Socialism in NO QUESTION of the knowledge of the law of draft program simply says From this it follows.
one country and that the inter relations of that uneven development of capitalist countries. Un One gets the impression that it follows from the the basis of neutralization of the world the authors of the draft, has nevertheless repeated at all. From this follows something quite the country with the capitalist world can be built on bourgeoisie (Stalin. Advancing this essentially them more than once. The text of the draft, as contrary. If the historical process would be such national ret ormist and not revolutionary internawould point of view, the necessity for the slogan we have seen, has taken a step forward in this res that some countries develop not only unevenly, but pect. If however, we leave aside the correction of even INDEPENDENTLY OF EACH OTHER, of a United States of Europe falls away or is at this elementary mistake, what is said in the draft isolated from each least diminished. But this slogan is, from other, then from the law of un about the law of uneven development is in essence viewpoint, important and vitally necessary pre pos one sided and insufficient.
ould no doubt follow the sibility of the building up of Socialism in one capitcisely because it condemns the idea of an isolated It would have been more correct first of all to alist country. at first in the most advanced country socialist development. For the proletariat of every say that the whole history of mankind is governed and then, as they mature, in in the more backward ones. That was the customary, so to say, average for the the difference is only of degree by the law of uneven development. Capitalism ones. it will be of the most vital necessity to carry finds various sections of mankind at diverse stages idea of the transition to Socialism within the ranks the revolution to the neigbouring of development with grave internal contradictions of pre war social domocracy. This idea was countries precisely the theoretical basis in each one of them. Great diversity in the yarto support insurrections in them with arms in hand ious levels, and extraordinary uneveness in the rate Of course the draft program does not hold this not because of abstract international solidarity, which is in itself unable to move the classes, but of development of the different view. But it is inclined towards it.
in the various periods because of the vital considerations which Lenin has The theoretical error of the draft lies in the fact the STAR Tand time, is that it seeks to deduct from the law of formulated hundreds of times namely. without gradually over the inherited unevenness. It breaks development, something, which the law does not TIMELY aid from the international revolution we will not be able to hold out. The slogan of the and alters it, employing thereby its own methods imply and cannot imply. Uneven or sporadic and its own ways. In contradistinction to the econ.
development of various countries constantly upsets Soviet United States corresponds with the dyn amics of the proletarian revolution which does not omic system which preceded it, capitalism is coneconomic ties and inter dependence of these coun break out simultaneously in all countries, but aiming at economic expansion, at the penętries which the very next day after four years of tration of new territories, the mitigation of econ.
passes on from country to country and requires closest class contact among them, especially on omic differences, the conversion of hemmed in prior bread and oil for powder and suspenders. On this European territory, both with the object of defense Vincial and ancial inter relationships and thereby brings about basic question, against the most powerful foreign foes, and with att expresses the idea equalizes their approchement and and economic objects.
historical development proceeds only on the basis cultural levels of the most progressive and backward of sporadic jumps while the economic basis One may, it is true, try to object, declaring that countries. Without this main which gives rise to these jumps, and upon which since the period of the Ruhr crisis which was the levelling out of, at first main process, the relativebev occur, is entirely left out of sight by the with Great Britain very last inpulse for the adoption of that slogan, and then America with Europe, the industrializauthors of the draft, or is forcefully eliminated by the latter has not played a big role in the agitation ation of the colonies, the diminishing distance bethem. This is done with the sole object of defend.
of the Communist Parties of Europe and has, so tween India and Great with all the ing the undefendable theory of Socialism in one to speak, not taken root. But this is fully true also of the slogans of a Workers Soviet Government, upon which is based not only the country.
quences arising from the enumerated processes of the After what has been said, it is not difficult to etc. e, of all slogans to be used ON THE Communist International, but also its very existunderstand that the only correct way to formulate VERY EVE OF REVOLUTION. This may be ence, would be inconceivable. By bringing the the question would be that Marx and Engels had notwithstanding the mistaken political expectations levelling out their state of development, capitalism sporadic historical development, stretches the pre countries economically nearer to each other and even prior to the imperialist epoch arrived at the of the Fifth Congress, the revolutionary movement European continent has been on the decline.
acts however, by methods of its OWN, that is But that is is exactly why it is detrimental to build anarchistic methods which constantly undermine course of which the nations will enter the revoluits own work by playing up one country against under the impress tionary flood one after another, while, on the other another and one branch of industry against ansions received only in that period. It was not by other, developing some parts of hand, the organic inter er dependence of the various ot Soviet United States of Europe was hile hampering and throwing back the develop cabuntries. the developing international divisions of accepted ment of some of its other parts. Only the merging precisely in 1923 of these two main tendencies the centrifugal and cialism in one country, the more so now in the outburst was expected in Germany and when the centripetal. the levelling and equalizing tendencies present epoch when imperialism has developed, question of State inte huronships in an exceedingly character. Every explains to us the liver texture ore dhe historical tendencies and has rendered the Marxian doctrine new accentuation of the European, and, process of the last centuries.
the Socialist revolution can begin only on the crisis, is grave national basis Imperialism, thanks to the universality, pene.
to raise the main political problems, and to advance trability and mobility, and the break neck rapidity DOUBLY AND TREBLY TRUE. On this queswhile the building up of a Socialist society withing national boundaries is impossible, again the slogan can of the United States of Europe. in the formation of finance capital as the driving tion, Lenin merely developed and put in concrete It is therefore fundamentally wrong to keep silent over the slogan without having rejected it, that is, of imperialism, lends vigor to both of these tendencies. Imperialism links up terms Marxist formulations and Marx answer te to keep it somewhere in reserve, to be used in this question.
more rapidly and more deeply the individual natemergency. On questions of principle the keep ional and continental units into one, bringing them derlying international conditions of the October Our Party program is entirely based on the uw ing in reserve policy does not hold good. THE CRITERION OF INTER fuhers and rendering their economic methods, social en is unies would hay nhateconstrpetiche e ho prove NATIONALISM part of our program. Here we will merely point The draft, as we already know, is making an attains this aim at the same time by means of out that when at the Eighth Congress of the Party, effort to proceed in its construction from the view such antagonist methods, such jumps, and such flights on the backward countries and districts, the late Podbelsky alluded that some formulations point of world economy and its inner tendencies of the program refer only to the revolution in Rusthat the unification and levelling of world econ a thing which deserves recognition. The Pravda is absolutely right when it says that therein lies the sia, Lenin replied in his concluding speech on the effected omy by it is upset by themselves question of the Party program (March 19, 1919)
basic and fundamental between and in a more convulsive manner the following: in preceding epochs. Only such a dialețical and national patriotic Social Democracy. Only by Podbelsky raised objections to the paragraph taking world not purely mechanical understanding of the law of omy, which dominates over all which speaks of the PENDING social revolution. His its parts, as a basis can a program of the internauneven development can make possible the avoidargument is obviously unfounded because IN OUR ance of the fundamental error which the draft proletarian Party be built. But precisely in PROGRAM IT IS QUESTION OF THEKSO.
analysing the main tendencies of world develop program, submitted to the Sixth Congress, has AL SCALE. Vol. 16, page 113. ment the draft displays not only an incompleteness, It will not be out of place to point out here that which depreciates its value, as has already been Right after the one sided characteristic of the at about the same time Lenin suggested that our pointed out above, but also falls into gross one law of uneven development pointed out by us, the sidedness leading to Party change its name from Communist Party of draft program says: Russia to Communist Party so as as to emphasize still The draft refers many times, and not always in From this it follows that the international prole further that is a party of INTERNATIONAL the proper place, to the tarian revolution must not be regarded as a single REVOLUTION. was the only one voting for uneven develop ment of capitalism as to the main and almost all.
determining law socialism is at first possible in a few or even in one that motion at the However, he did not that of development. Many misthe draft including the fundamental error, capitalist country.
bring the matter before the Congress of takes are theoretically based on the one sided and mis.
That the international revolutions of the prole the foundation of the Third International. This taken non Marxian and non Leninist interpretation tariat cannot be a simultaneous act, of this, it position proves that there could not even have of the law of uneven development.
goes without saying, there can in general be no been a thought of Socialism in one country at that In the first chapter the draft says: dispute among growi, up people after the ex time. That alone is the reason why the Party Uneven economic and political development is of the October Revolution effected by the program does not condemn this theory but an a solute law of capitalism. This unevenness be proletariat of a backward country under pressure merely EXCLUDES it.
comes still more accentuated and intensified in the of historical necessity, without having in the But the Young Communist League program epoch of imperialism.
least waited for the proletariat of the advanced which was adopted two years later had to issue a This is true. This formula in part condemns countries to even out the front. To that extent direct warning against home bred illusions and Stalin formulation of the question, according to which Marx and Engels did not know the law of is absolutely correct and quite in place. But matthe reference to the law of uneven development narrow mindedness on the question of proletarian revolution, with the object of training the youth uneven development and that it was first discover ters stand quite differently with the second half in the spirit of internationalism. But we will swil ed: by Lenin. On September 15, 1925, Stalin of the deduction namely, the meaningless state. speak of this later. TO BE CONTINUED)
slogan when a revolutionary The following document was submitted by the delega American masses and the coming of a turning point The main danger in the American Party comes from the right. This is due to the changing tion of the Opposition in the American Party to the in the class struggle.
Sixth World Congress of the Communist International, Denial of the existence of a widespread and objective conditions of the class struggle in the in July 1928, and signed by James Cannon, William United States and the opportunist political line general leftward or radicalization drif: among the Foster, William Dunne, Alex Bitteiman, bulk of the American workers, covering it up with of the Lovestone group which is the majority of Johnstone, Manuel Gomez and George Sskin. This a demagogic and faisc clarge against the the Central Committee.
serious and powerful political indictment of the line that it believes in a deep going revolutnority, and activities of the Lovestone Pepper leadership of radicalization of the entire American working The maturing inner contradictions of American the American Party was dismissed after the sessions of class.
capitalism and the leftward drift of the masses the Congress had been concluded with a ten line set of Carrying over into the question of the mood produce a turning point in the class struggle. From there. cich Weichtet the scant treatment accorded to of the masses the bourgeois theory of a long period of retreat before the onslaught of insisting upon the spotty nature of radicalization spottiness, this document by the nor the present attempt of in the sense that it is found only among the workers capital the American workers are passing over into some of the former leaders of the Opposition in the in the mining, textile and needle industries.
a period of defense and resistance preliminary to American Party to depart from this platform in any way Failure to recognize a leftward drift among a higher phase of offensive and aggressive strugdisturbs the essential validity of this indictment and its the working farmers. Failure to develop an effective gle against capitalist exploitation.
proposals. Events in the Party since its presentation to agrarian program. Failure to treat the agricultural the have entirely confirmed the correctness of In this period of workers as part of the proletariat!
the line of the document, and excepting certain wrong in the United States, Instead of taking advantage of the obvious formulations contained in it on the world position and relations and class struggle, sharpness of class requiring a reorientation of the Party perspec manifestations of the radicalization drift of the masses, role of American imperialism, we contiue to stand on it. the Lovestone group underestimates it, and con tives to changing conditions and a reformulation The Lovestone Pepper majority has voted to prohibit tinually and systematically in speeches, articles the pablication or circularization of this document in the of Party policy toward more aggressiveness, ini resolutions, etc. issues warnings and concentrates ranks. We will print it consecutively in The Militant. its attack against those who are seeking to attract tiative and militancy, we confront the danger of The following is the first installment. EDITORS.
the Party attention and orientate its policy on the holding on to old perspectives, outworn policies growing favorable condition for struggle resulting and methods of work, which prevent the full unfrom this radicalization.
folding of the Party leadership in the developing evaluating the present depression only as a reces The sum of these characteristics constitute a struggles.
sion. On this the Lovestone group persisted as late serious underestimation of the leftward drift of as February, 1928.
The danger in such a period as we are entering the American masses. Accepting the theory of spottiness of the in the United States comes from the right. This capitalist press and capitalist economists to explain danger 111. Lack of Perspective of Struggle.
the nature of the present depression and refusal to becomes real and actual because the Love see its special characteristic as a forerunner of a stone group, which constitutes the majority in the The growing aggressiveness of American capitalCentral Committee, refuses to orientate itself to deep going crisis. Underestimation of the great significance in ism, internally against the masses, externally the changing conditions of struggle and pursues the imperialist epoch of the strikingly uneven devel.
against its imperialist rivals, chiefly England, and an opportunist line, as will be proven in the fol.
opment of industry (coal, oil, textiles, etc. in con the leftward drift of the masses, constitute the main lowing points.
nection with other inner contradictions of American basis for a perspective of sharpening class strug.
gle and Failure to understand the processes of ration Overestimation of the Reserve Powers of the alization, the menacing nature of the movement American Imperialism.
designated as capitalist engineering efficiency social. from a correct analysis of the diminishing reserve ism and the integration of the labor aristocracy and powers of American capitalism and the growing Two basic, factors determine the condition of bureaucracy into the imperialist machine of American leftward drift of the masses.
American capitalism in the present period: 1) The The letter to our Party of April 13, 10. Failure to understand the full effects of the maturing inner contradictions of American capital rationalization drive upon the workers particularly 1928, states in the following way this perspective ism (disproportion between the rate of expansion as represented by the large extent of wage cuts, of struggle in America: of productive capacity and rate of growth of especially piece rates. Amid an atmosphere of growing dep depression volume of production, disproportion between the 11. Assuming that the course of American im. developing towards a crisis and more acute and growth of production and perialism will proceed mainly along the lines of aggressive policy on the part of American imthe contradictions of rationalization, capital development of British capitalism and failure to perialism at home and abroad (naval budget, perse.
understand the basically different present world situ. cution of the workers through injunctions, Nicara.
export, polarization of wealth and poverty, etc. ation.
gua, Philippines, Mexico and so on. and under are beginning to produce qualitative changes in The totality of these characteristics make for a conditions of a rapidly growing participation of the dangerously opportunist conception of present day the whole economic system; 2) These inner conworkers in mass struggles, as shown by the heroic American capitalism and for a grave overestimation a tradictions are maturing in the surroundings of struggle of the miners in Pennsylvania and Ohio, by of its reserve powers.
world capitalism and the Socialist growth This tendency of the Lovestone group finds its the Passaic textile workers strike, the fight in the needle trades, the historic Sacco Vanzetti agitation; of the which sharpen, intensify and expression in the original draft of the February the Workers (Communist Party, which has already accelerate the development of the contradictions thesis, the plenum resolution of May 1927, played the leading role in these struggles, and was of American capitalisin, hastening the coming of and in the writing and speeches of Comrades Love.
able also to take a prominent part in the miners stone, Pepper, Wolfe, Nearing, etc. etc.
its downfall.
struggle in Colorado, has now as its major task to mobilize and organize the workers under its banner An analysis of the degree of ripeness of those II. Underestimation of the Leftward Drift of the Masses.
against the capitalist offensive and against the recontradictions, will show that American capitalism formist supporters of capitalism, namely, the Amer.
ican Federation of Labor, and the Socialist Party is about to reach the apex of growth and that fur The murderous effects of the rationalization of America. TO BE CONTINUED)
ther expansion leads American capitalism to furdrive of American capitalism upon the masses ther and more drastic attacks upon the standards (4, 000, 000 unemployed, speed up, wage cuts, etc. OUR NEXT ISSUE of life of the American masses and to an attempt the sharpening imperialist aggression of the Amer The next issue of The Militant will contain: Another ican ruling class (Nicaragua, China, Philippines of the Communist International review of the Press spheres of imperialist domination, both of which only further intensify these contradictions leading etc. the success of Socialist construction in the idential election results. Another section of the Right to the ownfall of American imperialism. the systematic breakdown of the effects Danger in the American Party. An article on trade of capitalist and reformist propaganda, are all pro union questions. Reports and comment on the struggle In the light of the above, the present economic ducing a widespread leſtward drift of the masses against bureaucratic expulsions of Communists from the arty. More documents of the Russian Opposition; and depression.
other material and comment for the Party discussion.
of a deep going crisis, even though American There is a general growth of discontent, mili capitalism may succeed in postponing its coming tancy and readiness to struggle among the rem with the help of the reserve powers which it stiil skilled and unskilled workers (the bulk of the CIRCULATE enjoys. This cannot be viewed mere.
ly as a normal cyclical depression American proletariat. process of widespread slight and having in all bles industeineral radicalization is taking place passing effects. On the contrary, industries among the most exploited sections of changes which are place in American capitalist economy every such taking the workers.
The Militant, official Organ of the Op.
This leftward or radicalization drift of the masses position Group in the Communist Party of came to most active expression in the struggle of America, which makes its appearance with gree the contradictions of capitalism, undermines the mining, textile, and needle trades workers, this issue, will be published twice a month.
deeper the entire structure, eventually leading to and in the widespread foment and prospects for It will print regularly the suppressed writings deep going crises.
of Trotsky, Radek, Zinoviev and offer leadThe Lovestone group has an entirely diffent her the automobile, shoe, oil, meat packing, and other industries.
ers of the International Communist moveconception of the position and present phase of American capitalism. This conception is marked characterizes this general leftiard drift as a rapApril letter of the to our Party ment as well as timely articles and editorials on the American situation which denied by the following characteristics: idly growing participation of the workers in mass publication in the official Party Press. The material published in The Militant cannot The main emphasis upon the tendencies make ing for the growth and power of American capitalism.
Similar signs of foment and leftward develop te secuted from any ether source. Totally inadequate emphasis upon the force ment are shown among the working farmers who Subscribe to The Militant and crder a and cumulative effect of the contradictions of Amer continue to suffer under the effects of the agribundle.
ican capitalism, which are already producing qual. cultural crisis which though somewhat retarded, itative changes.
SUBSCRIPTION BLANK The Lovestone group sees no qualitative has not been liquidated.
changes taking place in American capitalism.
This leftward drift means a definite break in Endosed find One Dollar for one year sub4. Lack of proper evaluation of the inner con the mood of the American masses. break from scription to The Militant.
tradictions of American capitalism as distinct from passivity and retreat to increasing militancy and NAME the undermining effects of the declining world cap.
italism and the growth of the Viewing the coming of deep going crises in The Lovestone group does not share this point America mainly as a result of the disintegrating in ADDRESS of view. Its conception of the mood of the Amerifluences of declining world capitalism, relegating to the background the effects of the inner contradic.
can masses is marked by the following character tions of American capitalism istics: CITY Following the lead of bourgeois economists in Failure to see the break in the mood of the cularly, parti Sotave enough to be able an even more rapidly and than US THE MILITANT tional law of in view struggles.
perience struggle,