of the Ira issue. unasthshorrorsofwar.
partyleaderawhospeodtheirtinseinthe nsillionsof selvestobchitchedtothewarchariotlt. thatHindenburgnIightlead Ourodicialtheoristsarenotwithotn Page Two. T MV. r The Class Struggle. During War(Icfnreaheeodditiahthhart ﬂtlosa Len bergwssaraeseprbnassservea sentence for anti cilitarist agitation. It ap pearedia1eruM at. aasaguhestsrsed hyFraaa Mehring dlosaL ee hnmand sworessedhytheeaaorﬁoalheappearanos llE German Social Democracy. handed in its political resignation on August e. ms. On the same day the Socialist international collapsed. All at. temptstodenythis factortocouceal it merely serve to perpetuate the conditionsuhichbroughtitabout. This collapse is without a parallel in.
history. Socialism or Imperialism this is Ilse alternative which stunned up the political life of the various labor parties of the world during the past decade. In Germany especially it has formed the basis of countless programs. discussions and publications. One of the chief purposes of the Social Democracy has been the correct formulation of thought and sentiment with regard to this alternative. ith the outbreak of the war the word became flesh; the alternative changed from a. historical tendency to a politial situation. Face to face with this al. ternative as a fan the Social Democracy.
which had been the first to recognize it and bring it to the consciousness of the working class. struck its sails and without a struggle conceded the victory to Imperialism. Never before. since there hare been a class struggle and political parties. has there atistcd a party which.
after fifty years of uninterrupted growth.
after the attainment of a pre ctninntt positionofpower. hsthusbyitsownsel within twenty four hours wiped itself o!
the map. The apologists for this act. Kautslty among them maintain that the whole dutyofSocialis tsintinseofwaristo rennin silent. Socialistn. they say in effect. is a power for peace. not against war. Blathcreisalogicotgvgntsaone on elude. The nan tern Socialists outed andtheSocialist everyed ortatcritieistn alloftbeseare not nterelylnaintaining silence. They aresupportingthewarssheartilyasany Conservative or Centrist. Whu and wherewasthereeverawarwhichoould eahibitasilnilarspectaclel xWhersandwhenwasthedisregardof all constitutional rights accepted with press? ls cverbeforedidapoliticalpsrty pausﬁceitaalltoacauseagasnstwhieh Wigwam in the of the ganiutionoftheSocialDesuocraey. its winch praised discipline. gave the proofof vesinthefactthatfour bdngsallowedthcw.
onthepartoftheSotlistpartyco nes tofruitionnowinthiswar. Allourodu, eationofthensaaseansakethcsnnowthe obedientandeffectiveservantsof instrainedtheGernsanproletariatinorder an uplanaﬁoa of this phenomenon.
Theyare perfectly willingtoeaplaiaths. slightdisagreeusentbetweeatheiractiou ofto thyaudtheirwordsofyesterdsy Theirspologyisthstf slthoughtheSocialDahocracyhasoonoerneditselflluch. By Rosis LUXEMBURG guided by entirely new principles. Alter war has actually begun the great question for each proletariat is: Victory or defeatP Or. as an Austrobfarxist eaplains. a nation. like any other organism. rnust preserve its existence. In plain language this means: The proletariat has not one fundamental principle as tiﬁc Socialism heretofore maintained. IWG. one for peace ind another for war.
In timeofpeace. wearetosuppose. the workers are to take cognizance of the class struggle within the nation and of international solidarity in relation to other countries; in time of war. on the other hand. class solidarity becomes the. dominant feature of internal affairs and. the struggle against the workers of other countries dominates the proletarian view of foreign relations. To the great historic appeal of the Communist hfanifesto is added an important amendment and it.
reads now. according to this revision. Worlters of all lands unite in peace and cut one another throats in war!
To day. Down with the Russians and French! to tnorrow. We are brothers all!
This convenient theory introduces an entirely novel revision of the economic interpretation of history Proletarian tactics before the outbreak of war and after must be based on exactly opposite principles. This presupposes that social conditions. the bases of our tactics. are fundamentally diﬂerent ut war from what they are in peace. According to the economic interpretation of history as Marx etsablished it. all history is the false tory of class struggles. According to thenewrevision. wellustadd:eacept in times of war. Now human development has been periodically snarled by wars. Therefore. according to this new theory. social developnsent has gone on aceording to the following formula; a. period ofclasastruggles. alarltedbyclass solidarity and conflicts within the natiauztlseuaperiodofnational solidarity ofpeseetheyarerestored Wain ct.
cktydevebpgweuewwwuelike anicebergdoatingdawwawanncurrent: itslowerportionisnscltedaway. itturns over. andcootinuesthisprocesa usdeﬁnitely.
ls o alltheltnownfactsofhunianbiﬁtoryA straight counter to this new then. Theysbowthatthereisaaeces sential unity is It was so in the AmericaulebdlioninthehrisConsmandinthekussiaauprisingia soon And now in m1. in Russia.
Iforeover. theorctieallythis Iewidea lesvesnotoncstoneoftheﬂantiaadoetrineoaanother. lf, ashfsrasupposea.
aeitherwaraortheelassstruulefalls frombavmbutbothsrisefrolndeep social emoomiccausegthenlheycannot disappe arpcriodieallyunlesstheircaluee wageeystenal Butduringwarthewage systensdoesaottendtodisappear. Os thecootrary, theaspectsofitwbichgive risetothestruggisoftbsdassbeooase espociallypronsinenL Speculation, the foundingofnewcouspaniestourryon HI. I ll theseintlucnoatrndtoincreasethedass differencesdnringtiuteofwar. Andlilss. bdldulgofmnsenmhasnsade. nltartoxat. Saturday. May i917 breakofwarinevitablc. Kautslrylovestoquotsfrou u fr nem Either class unrest or chllhamonylsthefundansentalfactoe the continuation of politics by hoursociallifeﬁothlnpeacesndwar.
apiuﬁnmkthmughmpeu lusory. for it has placed as under military dictatorship therebynladewarpernum Thereforeourrevisedeconontie pretatioaofhistoryleadstoa Our new revisionists are betwees.
devilandthesea. Eithertheckas glc persists in waras thechief lif ditiouoflhepfoletlrialandthg.
rationofclassharntonybysocialln ersisacrinteagainsttheworlu og orcarryingontheclassstrnomin.
of peace is acritne sgainn the of the nation and the secws ityl of hvlinherthelnternstioualnuumains Irhﬁpefnsinssfterthewarorltsresurb irbectioawillukeplacenathebasisofths s lhsestrugglefro whiehltookitsrise bthsﬁrstplaoe. ltwillnotrsappearby ahlgieattheplayingoveroftheoldtunes hichhypuotisedtheworldbeforeAngusinceAugustﬂbygivingupthetaosfntroduced since that tingecan we gin the rebuilding of the International.
adtheﬁrststepinthisdirectionissgifortheendingofthewaraodthe proleinte of the international riat. Tlle lntcmationa Movement 2 30n the Firing Line tl Againsl Capitalism. lst ipite of the suppression and tion of news and an abundance of on that contradict each other. is that in Russia the revolution is but relentlessly getting the Agrarian revolts are spreading. some sections the peasanty is ft. dividing the land and taking poser The Council of Worknsen and Delegates is virtually giving tls. order to the Provisional Covers and this revolutionary presstsre has.
pclled the government MILE; clare against conquest and an it is a heartening thing this deputies. s of the Russian workers upon thrirpw action They are waging the clan 1:ng rk «radically. Rhine 0P0 fink us. glue: the decision now being may the struggle. And it is precisely in em revolutionary activity that its bps Russia lies. lj r Pro it a The great majority of the Partynotoulysupportsthc brutalsesansetivepertinits. pow; ddnlt. aly. Par dcaly. tho, wv Jew Lane. And sgas rpat vanism the. El nonsent Ignlr o a treaty Atthe ldCtatf delegates. Thcydcnoutsoedthe aaim udvﬂtmegwitboughowevl, deron and hferrheitn were the M1 breakmg completely with the social triots. pa lpKienthaLtlszrenchoppositiolwas representedbthnqllaffasDupresand Briaon. They were the ﬁrst to vote againstthewarcreditualthoughtheir notiveswereaotbasedontheprioci w5rhts mst tb cum. L As a stutter of fact. this welder Ind Kienthal ems. ulna gal writingsharpartscles agasnst theleaderd ofthuntnmlnnguetand mount withtluns nsupporung a resolutionstthelast was. Coo gresahfavur ofanlnternational Can ference through the old InternatioI nun unwilynnpolkyotos ervllpeace. btnaottogive up their supportladefuueoftbeoouatry. oul shundredvoteswereeastll.
nror oftheresolutioaofhoriotand t Brimﬂnllit leventhisreaolutioubaseshe?
mashedeIm po octsauu theth ammo ﬂ(m3defensivlewar. asltltgaskdoes Maltese «mutant. Tll Young Peoplia :qu of starch (No. 7) takes a. oould worry about our reputation! local conditions. The systens works out so.
lupus tsk Tutseisastrikeofmworkersin uhiswhat theNchorkEovsiagS u says. editorially: Any serious attempt ipple or paralyae the sodost ry of the tryinJhelnterestofsotnensinor asp or groups of in workers will. segcneral reseutrnentsnddamage reputation of union labor. mm developing in in. Lumber Tran district of Montana wheres cornplete tie up is expected ludians from Minnesota refused to scab. Organizer. o the have enthusiastic sudenoes. In bakers in Chicago. out on strike.
e eontpdﬁng the mayor to seriously drier federal intervention. The bosses areabletosupply lcsathanten percent ofﬁceonnal denlaod. accordingtoneus The union bakers. who are It for more wages and better eondUusI. assert they will stay out until mm are granted. rsasgncucolmotmrmau SAHWM emzmu coexistin and it is left to the thst sentinient is beentless groups pledged to oppose contription when comes. Already news from many quarters reporuthe organization of AntiConscription Leagues. The Llneulbcrsshouldconscript the young people of their own city. village or town in such leagues. In its headquarter notes Soliden ly nys: All elassconscious nternbcrs of thel. areconscientiouslyopposed bepﬂhnghﬁfebhodofhmnbdnn not for religious menus. as are the andFriendlySot ieties, butbp causewebdievethattbelnterestssnd welfareoftheworkingclassiaancounties are illentical. While are bitterly opposedtothellnperiale stscGoversassent of Ger nay. we are again slaughteringandalainting workereof anycountry. fallany our sensbers are sulering imprisonment. death andsbuseofallllindshtheclasswar.
whithwesrewagingforsocialandiai dustrialjnstioe. Barthel Barnes. oftbeS.
Idoptedaresolutionusanswcr questions andllofthenailitaryotnsusfornt inNewYorhStateasfollows: Questionso: Doyoudailaenewiption frol tnilitary service? to be suwered withf Yea Thisresdotioa wasalaoproeotedﬂ the borough min of the Socialist Party of Local King County and urriodbyanoverwhelniqvote. It will besenttoallthejranehesofthsSo eialist Party of New York State. and onrnsessbersshonldbeconseactiveinsrb ganiaingtlse Conscicntiousmjecbra r favourlagrunotnstraiglsttotbewindl Theoldredshallbeloatedsglh Wynne Mm TWENTYthousandl anlishsneahave nude their protest against mpulsorylsilitaryservicshthepanhalfyear.
by claiming ue ptioabesedon conscil. Onlybydeﬁnitelyreooguisingand eutiousobjectiona henlajorityofthcns. lowningourown weaknessesand fail accepted alternativeservioefnanywere finally exempted for sonic other reason.
and about ﬁv re thousand thrown into jail.
The majority of the conscientious objectors are workers and a great number of then are Socialists. The anti coo nnsringofpeseeonthelasisoftheeons. scription propaganda hasbeenearriedon with such vigor and conviction. that the general tern gradually has improved.
The brutal against the objectors hasuusednmuchpmtesuastostop.
some of the most ferocious manifestations.
In the earlier period ﬁfty objectors were forcibly transported to the war sons in France and after again refusing military orders were court enabled and condemned to death. Strong protests in e e railroad shops at Hagerstown. hld, England. however. changed these sentences into ten years penal servitude.
Others were beaten and tortured by utilitary authorities in so called special roorns. and denied trial. Gradually.
however. there developed a more systematic treatment. combined of course with special offenses and ill treatntent. dilcrh ing. according to local authorities and as follows: turned over to the military authorities and with few exceptions is court snartialed and sentenced to imprisonment.
generally for ll! days in a civil prison. During this puiod the Central Tribunal decides whether the objector is genuinc. and if found so. he is offered alternative service of national importance under the totalled Home Ofﬁce scheme. if he refuses to accept this. be issentencedtoalongertertninprison.
and so on. Gilbert Canaan. who claimed to have been for many years a conscientious objectortothewholestateoflnodernsoeicty and therefore wu a conscientious.
objector age wt. was a. efﬁg uﬁhsmmMaﬁ with tow a. MTEM ﬁlo tat. land is MS. Imm1 tbe. looted.
asaSociall sttowhoanoeuhnn learns Iigion. based upon a belief. International Brotherhood. One o the judges called this political. but majority agrted that: hougbtheobjectioaaarel rather based upon nsoral than upon religious grounds. they are acceptable as conscientious objections. which. however. didnotlteepour radeoutof?
jail. because he refused do service.
Lstely the proceedings have been sys. ternatised by decsssons of the Central Tribunal. as follows. Abusinte enemptioh is ruled out eistirely. although this is clearly against the spirit of the law. hisdcniedthatnsenwhe posodtothisparticular. orwhoare preparedtotakehunnnli nudcrcertaia circunsstarsces. areC. satall. Itisdcclaredthattoyoungpnple exemption should be refused. because: theirviewseannotbsregardedas deﬂaminamua Nembcrsh pill.
Sociali storganuat ionlsiaitselfooosid. erednoevidrnceofaconscientionsobfame. r. Againsttheserulings. although not bum fortheloedjodgeatbeNo Con scriptionl ellowshipesrriesaalnternive.
propaganda. ltocrtahslyrequiresaudadtytodenundthatyoungpeopleshall killsndbekilledandatthesanle time becauseofbeing.
tooyotntgl. Thechiefsrgnnsentpresentcdbyths Socialistsfstheirlnternationaloonoep. ofageneralbrotherhood Giﬂord srgusd: lansaSocialistaudso hallsinoeritythslthelifeandperh. ofeveryanehncredaadthat is ofdivhityhevery ln aaabe wg. pectiveafthesation tswhieahe lea aorbetr yasy beliefhthsbrotherhoodefallnsea To El ii. Conscientious Objectors in EnglandThe corlsdentious objector) is. alternative.
map worstoppreuornsodnowtllatnelgiulslnvsdedlalnabouttobeeonlpenedto defendher. Eve Gamer anyslienswboarewhitensenarepreJ ferredtous. lbavebeenbudetodfrora e onelaboruthsngetoanother.
lnvicwofthesecircuntstances, andalao tbsfactthatlhavealnonlobjoctionto rather than ﬁght.
mnnmummdnmo ﬂf ingheforethediﬂ erentcourtsandthe courage of conviction sbowabyagreat number of Socialists will bear results.
ifnotstouoe. thcn, inthenearfuture.
bio Conscription Groups BESlDESoftheSocialistpartiesand.
the Industrial Workers of its. World. a campaign again: utilitarian andoonscriptioa isbeingcam ed oaby severalotberorgardsatiouasnsnogwhich. anwaralwouldsscrincsnyrigbts. theAsnerican UnionAgainﬁlilitariﬂa andtheEnsergeacyPcacsFeder atioaare wellknown. Aspocialorgsnintioaforthepurposs of resistiogconscrtptson istheNs Ceaseri rs en FM). withaplatfor asfollows: Webelievethatsllaseaare pledget Wesreuualtersblyopposedtn wsrandweaﬁrnttbedutyoftheindividultofollowthedictatesofhisoww conscience; therefore we can , hcpt. is any asilitaryorothercompulsoryscrwce.
Theseorganieationadoaot carryna anactual mmmm portperwuawhoarewillingtoaignthev pledge. u Martin Wreataatsoa ia of tbe Vevflr slash. Manon menswear. my fellownsas. few thounud havesignedthiapledge. hr the Bronx, New York. 5m. Training Wald Association hasbeen fornsetL with Boston RM laadditiontotheseorganintionsthere are a large nousberof local groups. pledgeltorefusenilitaryservioeiaany forra. Bevelutionl (Who ll and um it will never be beca use 00 will. it. You are wrong.
Centletncn. Utopia ls the most terrible reality on earth. It has destroyed ens.
piece and names kings and min 40. unple and obliterated. 04. Utop nisaonsasewhenitisthenam.
ﬁrm ruined dmmerora philouanuake wlseo it becomes lb. 3n. ﬂthainonofthepeopktlluhas murmlﬂiﬁstibunarrest.
able snatch. But where is reason now? Fortbreelongyearaithssbeen hesdqurters at. resC.
Paw 3w Ae itﬁ a sopher;butitiansorepotentthanan rr dead. this great reactionary. title if 1 shwn thla servantid Wanamasnm, isle. You yourselveehavedaiusnd.
olcredltonaaaltarofroerhiignm topropitiatethel eans. when you brokedownlllthedylresof nint sudﬂoodedtheworldptthehman oflndtealava. unwed.
mmhhhuhmn shut Throw am. If. Equality. Fraternity. the Folly. thathassurvivodtheageaandmm endrcledallthewgrldintheewirfd dsudnerrysarahna. Joyaad Wybl olly. Letasgetmui. vs ndlinelesottsssuol. Ln.
bursaries emotional. l. 15. nswarhnurdc.
Particdsrlystrlhgaad htcresting, fortlhontry. htbefollowingarguo RY Wheathersnhthstsrethta shlbe. l. Wheatha dwells up. hllw. nd. asaonseos. stur. sttbepresuttinsesresuhofthaoot.
monummmm evﬂfehsuchawayasto nahethsoﬁ. 52 is damn. Party.
will Oll. dbsaberwe.
Tlepatﬂwkfmhndldahs of thsAnserleaneitianlshnseasurablsaad beyond reproach. Assoonas Camel. Jolrearrivedhthisoountrytheprioe FrucIIsgsw tlpabmlftyper. luaniaunhlmlq uy. uuhcwr va le maize so. 43 «H lmyucuosu beckhgsttbedoor. Yon nod.
NWMwuuuneJ asur ﬂu innintho lymgyu ld 0entle ea, la row o