THE REVOLUTIONARY AGE Hex her 10, 1018 The. German RevolutiOn 2: Revolution in Germany is only incidentally a evalumﬁ against the Kaiser. It is a revolution against Capitausm nd Imperialism, a revolution against that 5y: an of industrial and ﬁnancial brigandage of which. ihe Kaiser was simply the autocrat symbol and the braggart expression The capitalist press has for four and a half years fooled the world into believing that Germany was what it was because of the Kaiser and the Junkers.
This is an error of the ﬁrst magnitude. The autocracy in Germany was not a Junker autocracy, it was primarily an autocracy of industry and ﬁnance, capitalist Imperialism. The autocracy persisted in Gerrnany because Capitalism and Imperialism found it proﬁtable to use the autocracy as an instrument for conquest and against Socialism. The industrial and ﬁrpncial Kaisers united with Kaiser Wilhelm in plots of plunder and agression. Kaiserisrn would have been overwhelmed if it had not converted itself into an instrument of Capitalism and Imperialism in Germany.
During the war, the magnates of industry and ﬁnance enthusiastically supported the war and were the most aggressive of all in proposing annexations.
The National Liberal Party three years ago presented a memorandum to the government urging the annexation of Belgium and Northern France; and the National Liberal Party is the party of big capital ﬁnanced )y the steel barons. It was the capitalist and the nancier who formulated plans for the economic subttion of Russia, and the world; it was the capitalist the ﬁnancier who plunged Germany into disaster; am. it is the capitalist and the ﬁnancier who must be overthrown, and pay the penalty of their crimes.
Capitalist Imperialism. of which German Imperialism was the complete and tidal expression, thrives upon aggression, upon conquest, upon increasing its Ivn economic opportunity by limiting the economic Against To Citizen Romain Rolland: At the hour when Republicans of the whole world, celebrating the anniversary of the fall of the Bastille, pay homage to the French Revolution and declare their indestructible faith in an early realization of a lifeof brotherhood, the Telegraphs informs us that the governments of the Emente Allies have resolved o crush the Russian Revolution. kened through the ﬁght against the dispossessed Classes, a hostile aristocracy, against a bourgeoisie nXlO ls above all to reconquer their privileges and their capital, more than half strangled through Ger. Imperialism. the power of the Soviets is in dangrr annihilation to day through the offensive begun the Entcnvto. css are those who do not see that this armed rwmlbw persistently demanded for some time by i ussiau circles which have lost. all political lll W hT will have the result of awakening the indignation 1f the invaded nation. Irrespective of what is bring aid, and without showing any partisanship for the Soviets, the fact is that this intervention is against the entire Russian people, against their will iur peace, and their ideal of social justice. The day ill come, when through the uprising of this nation, which still capable of great things, the invaders hnu violated it, will. be expelled. That day, rrnrlunrn and Germans, Austrians and English, will all mnzillr be the object of hatred in Russia.
The live un u nl urupr. Iluor u lm llu ullgh lln Iniumil lmw ru nr Ilu ir rIlIllllrIlh Imuvslly. uul Ii Lin u. uI ll luv. Ill. Ilu innumsr. Ilur lu Illll ul Ill nunnuunl lN ll lll lll llllll is Intin mil In llu liuasun plnli Inlinl, Ill tin rllm: u ln« IIm nl II this llt ll ll l! ininslir In! IlI v »l. llr. ll lll. but dial it. Ill . ul II drum up In In tin. It uill il ll lr :u le. lll In Inul ruu. ls unrlh living: Ilriru lr l ln al u uuunls ullirh :mI st nuliug. will cunlril nlr, fwl surr. make known Ilu lrulh. Lapin In luv in pmiliuu ni nrr than :lll) lutll lw, to. l:c l which have lnkrn plan in Russia «luring the past nine months. have taken Ilnily. short notes of my impressions. They were written in hurrymcessarily incomplete, sketchy. and often contradictlrm opportunity of other nations; and it is this Imperialism that is being annihilated in Germany, as it was annihilated in Russia.
The simple abdication of the Kaiser would alter nothing; his system the unity of autocracy with irnperialistic ﬁnance would still retain control, still oppress the proletariat, clash with other Imperialisms, produce new wars.
This unity of autocracy and Imperialism in Germany, of autocrat and capitalist, is proverl by the fact that the Revolution, once in action, immediately develops into a revolution against Capitalism. The abdication of the Kaiser becomes simply an incident, comparatively trivial and unimportant. As in Russia the downfall of the Czar was the signal of the new revolutionary stru ggle against the Czars of industry and ﬁnanCc, so in Germany :the abdication of the Kaiser ﬂares up into. the revolutionary struggle agailst the Kaisers of ﬁnance and industry.
That the German Revolution is a developing proletarian revolution is evident in the general organization of Councils (Soviets) of Workmen, Soldiers and Peasants as instruments of revolutionary action, and the arising demand thatall government power should be vested in these Councils. This development characterized the proletarian revolution in Russia.
Out of the terror and agony of the war, and out of defeat, is coming the revolution against Imperialism in Germany. It is this revolution that was the chief factor in the coming of peace Bolshevism that conquered.
The break came ﬁrst in Bulgaria, where Bolshevism was rampant, compelling Czar Ferdinand to make a counter revolutionary peace in a desperate attempt to save his throne. But he went into oblivion, then his son, and now Bulgaria is a republic.
Then Bolshevism ﬂared up in Austria Hungary, demoralized the army, organized Councils of Workmen and Soldiers. provisional government was organized, after declaring the monarchy abolished, and peace negotiations started.
Six weeks ago, it was admited generally that the German army was still intact, could still ﬁght on; today, Germany is making peace why? Because Bolshe vism and the Revolution decreed the end of the war.
Without this revolutionary activity, the troops of the Central Powers could not have maintained a victorious offensive, but they could still have maintained a victorious defensive for some time to come.
The ideological impulse of Bolshevism, uniting with the terrilbe agony and mass misery, ﬂared up into the Revolution. The great event that the Bolsheviki, that the Russian workers and Peasants, had struggled and starved and died for came into being. And as German Imperialism naturally acted against Soviet Russia, German revolutionary Socialism acts together with Soviet Russia.
Some weeks ago, upon the appearance of the crisis in Germany, the Soviet Government offered and pledged help to the Gemian workers in their revolution. Lenin, from a sick bed, wrote a letter to the Central Executive Committee, saying: The crisis in Germany shows either a revolution begun or a revolution inevitable in the near future. Placing Scheidemann Co. in the govermnent will simply hasten the revolutionary explosion. We had decided to have an army of a million men by spring, but we shall now need three million.
The situation in Germany, in Euroope, is still ﬂuid, events rapidly follow each other, still in process of development. The task of the revolution in Germany is to become deﬁnitely a proletarian revolution, to conquer all power for the Socialist proletariat.
Only a deﬁnite proletarian revolution in Germany can make a clean sweep of the old reactionary system. and assure the coming of universal Socialism.
Intervention in Russia cry. send you enclosed a copy of the notes which could ﬁnd, that is nearly all those which have sent to France. am not a Bolshevik. know the great mistakes that have been committed by the Maximalists.
But also know that before signing the treaty of Brest. the Conunissaries of the people did not cease to solicit the Allies for military help which would have permitted the Bolsheviki to resist the abominable demands of the Central Empires, and. ha e saved them from having to submit to a shameful peace of which they knew the dangers. also know that since Brest, Trotzky and Lenin have multiplied their efforts to induce the powers of the Entente to collaborate loyally in the economic and military reorganization of Russia.
Finally, know that these desperate appeals to the Allies, contrary: to their best interests, have been opposed by a non possumus disdainful indifference.
Forgetting the teachings of history, and erring to the point of believing that the dismembered parts of :Russia would continue the war abandoned by Russia, they have created the Ukraine, to the great beneﬁt of Austria. and Germany; they have pushed with all their might the separatist tmdencies of Finland, P01and, Lithuania and the Caucasus, and with a Rumaniun army they have fought the Russian army. These states as soon as created, have fallen into the arms of our enemies, as it was easy for me toxpredict, while the Russian government, although weakened, lost in the conferences of Brest. a great part of its authority and prestige. In the Interior where the Allies have played the game of counter revolution, they have aggravated the general disorder and precipitated the disorganization of this unfortunate country.
Before Brest, their indifference made Russia defencelcss against the ignoble appetites of the PanGermans. After Brest. the hostility of the Allies is bound to push this nation, which does not want to die, into the camp of the enemy of yesterday who knows admirably well how to take advantage of our numerous errors. The Conservatives approached! with enthusias the. Austro German governments from which they rightly expect the restoration of the old regime. The parties of the extreme Left, with a heavy heart, have to consent to this provisional reconciliation which necessarily must bring about their destruction, but which prolonging their agony, maintains their hope for existence.
In spite of the modiﬁcations imposed by the censor you will ﬁnd in the pages which send you, abundant proof of what say here.
These notes have been sent from Petrograd and from Moscow. Given to the care of the ofﬁcial Courier who left for France weekly, they have been addressed regularly to Albert Thomas, Jean Longuet, Ernest LatTont. Many of them have also been sent to other friends, to the Deputy Pressemane, to Pierre Hump, Henri Barbusse, etc. Some of them must have been intercepted or gone astray. The majority reached their destination. can see this from their answers dated as late as March. Since then communication by mail with the Vest has become extremely precarious.
Among these notes you will not ﬁnd a single line which could form an ofﬁcial reproach as an indiscretion against an ofﬁcer and member of the French Military Mission in Russia. As a mater of fact they contain nothing but the personal observations of a French citizen interested in observing the facts only as an impartial, open minded witness. They are extracts of my conversations with leader of Bolshevism and of the Opposition, which could not pass by in silence. have a deep conviction that in giving you these documents, am strictly doing my duty as a Socialist and a Frenchman. In doing this have faith that you will not abuse my conﬁdence. pray you to run through these notes and to communicate them to political men, to the philosophers and to the thinkers of France who in your opinion will be interested in reading them. Men such as Auv lard, Gabriel Seailles, Maeterlinck and many others who after they know the truth. will be capable of enlightening our dear country. They will know how to prevent the sons of the great French Revolution from (Continued on page four)