vi ﬁn. To. e. n; We e. W. 7 humanism nuns. It includes no protest against the August 28, 1937 Spain sUnionsinPactagainstStalinists SOCIALIST APPEAL Syndicalist and Socialist Centers Join Hands to Halt EP. Reactionary Drive (Continued from page 1)
Stalinists to force CNT members into Stalinist locals and the (LP.
The rest implements these ends.
Blow at Stalinists 0n the day this pact was published, the UGT National Executive took a number or important ateps to carry it out. Claridad of Iadrid (once Caballero organ, but seized by the Staiinists at the end of April) and Lao Notisias of Barcelona were declared no longer ofﬁcial organs of the WT. Even more signiﬁcant was the decision to superintend the incorporation into their respec tive National Unions in each industry, of the regional federations of Catalonia, and to call a Regional Congress in Catalonia at which only unions afﬁliated to the UGT would be admitted.
If these decisions are carried out, the fraudulent claim of the Stalinists to represent great masses in the trade unions will be effectively exposed. The tiny organisation of the UGT existing in Catalonia at the beginning of the civil war, had been captured by the Stalinists and, since then, run regionally as a complétely independent entity. The inﬂux of the masses into the unions had been brazenly cha nnelized into the regional set up controlled by the Stalinists. The big organisation of the railroad workers of Catalonia, for example, was controlled, not by the UGT National Federation of Railroad Workers, but the Stalinist Regional Committee! Stalinist control was maintained by two simple bureaucratic devices: the GEPCI, which. huickly included in its ranks all the ibourgeois and petty bow ois elemenu, was given proportional representation on the Regional Committee, as were the highly conservative unions of government functionaries crest.
ed after the civil war began; and, for the rest, the Stalinists simply refused to call a regional congress at which the unions could speak for themselves. In the name of the UGT, Lao Nollcish had called for the liquidation of the Wind, the arrest of the workers who had defended themselves May 7, intervention of the Generalidad in the factor tea, etc. If Caballero really carries out the decisions of July 29.
Stalinism will suffer a tremendous defeat in Catalonia.
Stalinists Assail Pact Manda Obrero, chief Stalinist organ, bitterly attacked the var CNT pact. Abroad, however, where. the Stalinists have been claiming control of the UGT, lsey hailed the move to unity. Ind. Obreoa putiwlark deMnoad the failure of the pact to include a pledge of support of the Negrin government The poet blows against the bourgeois Stalinist bloc, the at»
tacks on it of the Stalinists, must not blind us to the two major defects of the agreement; The program of action does not include a provision for defending the anti fascist political prisoners, although. both the CNT and left socialist press call or thbir defense. It includes no proposal to struggle against the vicious political censorship of the labor press, although both or ganizations suffer from it. It includes no agreement for protecting the centers and collectives of the two organlutions against repression.
decrees prohibiting armed police forces from joining trade unions, 1: those disarming the workers. It does not protest the corrupting practice of separating the ofﬁcers from the ranks of the soldiers by a system of unequal wages and rankings. Nor and and this is a burning necessity as inﬂation increases does it demand trade union control of prices and distribution of food.
In other words, the most pressing immediate needs of the workers are not included in the ONTUGT program of action. It becomes a primary duty of the revolutionists in both organizations to demand inclusion of these points in the program.
Unity Machinery Weak The apparatus established to carry out the pact is hopelessly narrow and weak. The national contact committee is ridiculously small and limited to purely advisory capacities. Likewise the local contract committee are so completely subordinated to the national set up as to be deprived of all initiative. really serious attempt at united action of the proletariat must send roots into every factory, village and regiment of UGT NT members.
Moreover, the organized workers must take the lead in drawing into the united movement the many millions of workers and peasants still unafﬁliated; and this can only be done by providing for their participation in electing the contact committees.
This means that the contact committees must be democratitu elected by all the workers in each factory, village and regiment. There is no other effective method for uniting the deepest layers of the masses with the advance guard. These democrati cally elected contact committee, linked together in local, regional and a national council, would so indubitahly represent the masses, that the Stalnists could go against them only at the cost of losing the allegiance of such workers and peasants as the Shiiniats ranks include. The net work of contact committees would put an end to the repressions and the counter revolutionary schemes of the bourgeoisie, as the present weak apparatus of the united front cannot.
The anarchist and socialist prejudices against this really comprehensive form of united front of the proletariat must be overcome by the determined and persuasive propaganda of the revolutionary elements. Here is the basic task of the genuine revolutionistl Beginning as instruments for Mending the immediate interests of the workers, the democratie organs of the united front become the arena, in which revolution and reform contend for the leadership of the masses; and, when the revolutionists prevail, become the organs of power and the foundations of the workers state.
In these possibilities, rather than in its present program and structure, is. the real significance of the UGT CNT pact. BourgeoisStalinist hostility, already ex. pressed, will intensify. the more, if the united front tends to develop the form of sovieta.
But in unity the workers will ﬁnd the strength to repel repression and gather the workers and peasants in a single democratic structure. Consistent Party Lacking One thing is still lacking: the organised revolutionary force which will, single mindedly, tirelessly, fight to open this road and clear it of all obstructions.
As always, so now in Spain, the problem of the revolution is the problem of the revolutionary party. But a year of civil war, in which every day has concentrated the lessons of months and even years, has crystallized the forces for the new party. The left wing of the POUM, which includes the majority in Barcelona and Madrid, stands on the program of soviets and workers state power. The Friends of Durruti. left wing in the CNTFAI, persecuted by the government and disowned by the CNT, stands on a similar program. It is axiomatic that Csbsllei o new found boldness must reﬂect a far deeper and more stable leftward swing in his ranks. Founded only a few months ago, the Bolshevih Leninist group of the Fourth International, despite out lawry by the government, is ﬁnding roots in the masses. In the day by day struggle for the immediate needs of the workers, these revolutionary forces can be welded together into the party of revolution.
An extremely encouraging de velopment is the growing volume of protest in the CNT press, and also in the left socialist organs, against the arrests of workers, particularly against the arrests of the POUM leaders.
The protest campaign, un fortunately, got under way very slowly. Niu was arrested on June 15, his comrades in widespread raids during the following week; and on June 23 the government decreed the semi fascist legal procedure under which they were to be tried: all anti govemmcntal activity is deﬁned as espionage, to be prosecuted before Special Tribunals of civil and military judges chosen by the Ministers of Defense and Justice, in secret sessions! Apart from assigning their attorney, Pabon, to the defense, the ONT did almost nothing for nearly a month. Finally the National Committee of the GNT formally undertook their Mense, and Federica Montseny, embinet minister, gave to the masses the first inkling of Nin fate in a mass meeting speech in which she charged he had been murdered by the Stalinists.
0N Press Protests Frame Up The trials against the POUM are the touchstone of the character of the government, declares the anarchist press. GM of Msdrid (July 29) declares. We must begin by saying that we believe and will continue to believe them to be revolutionaries, men like Nin, Andreas, Bevin, Arquor, etc»
who for so manyyens have donor hated Wm the 3pmish proletariat that they know how to tilt worthily the interests sf the wet Hagen.
It will continue believing in their rcctitude and in their political decency, in the same way that we believe in the spiritual grandeur of Francisco Ferret, in spite of an enormous pile of legal folios by which the Bourbon monarchy presented him as an enemy of Spain and an evil monster.
The censorship, of course, prevented publication of the story of the lynching of Andres Nin.
The anarchist press has. as a substitute, taken to pointedly asking the government: Where is Andres Nin. The fact that the POUM could mobilise in Catalonia alone ten thousand fighters against fascism was no obstacle to their being cslled fascist advance guard by the perennial factionalists, says CNT. It sardonically contrasts the fact that fascist ofﬁcers were tried by the Plopular Tribunals, while the POUM prisoners are to be tried under the decree of June 23. The anarchists recall Nin three decodes of service to the proletariat, beginning as a CNT leader; Gorkin and Andrade twenty and more years, founders of the Comintern; David Rey thirty years in the movement, ten spent in the prisons of the monarchy and republic, the eleventh in the prison of the present government, etc.
The defense campaign has had one immediate consequence. On July 80, the Ministry of Justice announced that the anti fascist prisoners would be brought together in one prison, segregated from the fascist prisoners. Until then revolutionary leaders were put in the same cells with fascist ofﬁcers! Does this change mean that the government is going to retreat from its previously avowed intention to try Andrade, Gorkin, and Rey together with a Falangistl Certainly, the ofﬁcial admission of the distinction between antirfascis prisoners» and the rest is an important concession.
The speed of political developments in Spain is truly extraordinary. Only three months ago, on May 17, ousting the UGT and ONT, the bourgeois PrincStalinist bloc took the reins of government. The Negrin cabinet seemed to be the strong power which would, once for all, liquidate the last vestige of the conquests of July 19th, break the backbone of the labor movement, re establish completely the hourgeois order, and having thus reassured Anglo French imperialism, secure from. them sufﬁcient material and diplomatic support to force an armistice, out of which. would issue united bourgeois republic. The Negrin government seemed well on its way to this end when it succeeded in outlawing the POUM, kicking the CNT out of the Catalan goverment, arresting hundreds of key militants, establishing rigid police control of Catalonia, foisting its ofﬁcers on the militias, establishing a minute polities censorship on the CNT and UGT press. The ONT and GT put up little opposition to their on pulsion from the government and the ensuing reactionary steps; apparently they were paralyzed by the hope that the Negrin cabinet would succeed in getting the.
help from the great democracies which had been denied to the Ca ballero government. and that it would, consequently, carry on the our more successfully than its (predecessor.
Negrin Cabinet Shows Incunpetence But three months of the Negrin cabinet have demonstrated its incapacity to carry on the war. The great democracies continue to collaborate with the Italo Gcrman bloc in depriving anti ductst Spain of arms. They will aid the loyalist side only when the loyalist side becomes almost indistinguishable from Franco in its class character.
They fear the effect of victories upon the morale of the workers and peasants. Even more important, the Negrin government has proved unable to utilize the materials and man power at its disposal. As it wooded out the proletarian ofﬁcers and gave more and more power to the bourgeois bureaucracy and general staff, more and more acts of sabotage and outright treachery occurred.
Bilbao fell intact into Franco hands, though it is an elementary axiom of military science that well armed troops cannot be. drivcn from a city until its buildings are razed to the ground.
The same thing has now happenReinosa, key to Santander defenses. The promised oﬁensives on the Madrid, Teruel and Aregon fronts, to relieve Santander.
have not materialized. The government of victory has failed even more miserably than its predecessor. In this lies the enplanation for the new found resurgence of CNT UGT opposition.
The CNT press abounds in aid from England and France, although the CNT leaders have not entirely freed themselves from that illusion: the very manifesto of July 17 addressed to the world proletariat declaring. For us, the revolutionaries of Spain, there is only one salvation: your aid. includes in its slogans one perfectly acceptable to the Stalinists: Put pressure on your governments to adopt decisions favorable to our struggle. It is obvious that a single friendly gesture from France would cause the anarchists to revert to the illusions which have so undermined the prosecution of the war. Their present skepticism, however, drives them to demand intensified mobilisation of the internal resources of Spain.
Araquistain Disillusioned The same motives galvanize the Caballero forces. Luis Aroquistain, Caballero theoretician.
writes in Adelsute of Valencia, July 18: We have counted too much, in illusion and hope, on the London non intervention Committee; that is to say, on the aid of the European democracies. Now is the hour to realize that we can expect nothing decisive from them in our favor, and from one of them much against us, at the least. On this conception we must base our foreign policy. To realise how new his language is to Anguistsin, one must read again the statements which he made, as Ambassador to France, until tbs middle of May. Then he expected not only Anglo French aid.
but amicable collaboration with Italy.
Interviewed by Le Pdit Journal at the beginning of April,. Araquistain said: Mussolini, who is a thorough realist not frightened by words, should not be frightened by fantasies such as that of a Bolshevik utopia in Spain. Ha has forgotten that there is no reason to suppose that republican Spain ﬁter the war would adopt tow a policy different from that prior to the wor. The arts of peace, of diplomacy, are methods of international attraction h c work tobetter advantage than war.
Araqnistain trusted that Mussolini would quickly overcome the bitterness produced by tho Guadalajara defeat. in three months, however, events have driven Araquistian to a more realistic position. That he and Caballero will maintain it, one may be permitted to doubt, considering thier record. But revolutionaries can utilise it as a, point of departure from which to win the masses for a consistently to volutionary msecution of thwar against fascism.
ed to the manufacturing town of warnings against illusions about. Ha